Class 11 Sociology Chapter 4 CULTURE AND SOCIALISATION
NCERT Notes for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 4 CULTURE AND SOCIALISATION, (Sociology) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions with inside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Notes for Class 11 Sociology Chapter 4 CULTURE AND SOCIALISATION
Class 11 Sociology Chapter 4 CULTURE AND SOCIALISATION
- Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, “that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
- Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving.
- Culture is the systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people.
- Culture is the sum of total of the learned behavior of a group of people that are generally considered to be the tradition of that people and are transmitted from generation to generation.
- Emergence of diverse ways of life or culture because of different settings.
Characteristics of culture
- It is a way of thinking, feeling, believing
- It is a way of life
- It is transmit from generation to generation
- It is Learned behaviour
- It is a storehouse of pooled learning
- It is a complex phenomenon
- It found in every society
- It is the collection of ideas, habits, custom etc.
Three Aspects / Dimensions of Culture
Cognitive Aspect of Culture
- Cognitive means Knowing, perceiving or conceiving an act.
- Cognitive Culture refers to understanding, how we make sense of all the information coming to us from our environment
- How we learn to process, what we here to see, so as to give it some meaning.
- Ex: identifying the ring of a cell-phone as ours, recognizing the cartoon of a politician.
- In literate societies ideas are transcribed in books and documents and preserved in libraries, institutions or archives.
- But in non-literate societies legend or lore is committed to memory and transmitted orally.
Normative aspect of Culture
- This refers to rules of conduct
- It consist Folkways, mores, customs, conventions and laws.
- These values guide the social behaviour of the individuals in different circumstances.
Material aspect of Culture
- It refers to tools, technologies, machines, buildings and modes of transportation, as well as instruments of production and communication.
Material and Non-material Culture
- Material culture includes all physical things that people create and attach meaning. o Example:- Clothing, food, tools, architecture etc.
- Non- Material Culture include non-physical things such as rules, mores beliefs etc.
- For proper functioning of culture, we need a joint functioning of material and non-material aspects of culture.
- Rapid changes in material and non-material aspects lagging behind and lead to cultural lag.
- Cultural lag(by William Ogburn) is the gap between material and non-material culture.
Difference between Law and Norms
- Norms are implicit rules, laws are explicit rules.
- Explicit:- being aware of rules, customs. Regulations within the culture and learning these consciously.
- Implicit:- Frequently, unrecognized by people but that give direction of behaviour.
- Law is a formal sanction defined by government as a rule.
- Laws are applicable to the whole society and violation of the law attracts penalties and punishment.
- Laws are universally accepted while norms are varying according to status.
Culture and Identity
- Identities are not inherited but fashioned both by the individual and the group through their relationship with others.
- Every person in modern society plays multiple roles.
- In a culture there can be many subcultures, like that of the elite and working class youth.
- Sub-cultures are marked by style, taste and association
- Subculture is a cultural group within a larger culture, often having beliefs or interests at variance with those of the larger culture.
- Particular sub-cultures are identifiable by their speech, dress codes, preference for particular kind of music or the manner in which they interact with their group members.
- Sub-cultural groups can also function as cohesive units which imparts an identity to all group members.
- Within such groups there can be leaders and followers but group members are bound by the purpose of the group and work together to achieve their objectives.
- It is the process of applying our cultural values to evaluate the behaviour and beliefs of people from other cultures.
- Evaluation of other culture according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one’s own culture.
- It is the opposite of Ethnocentrism
- A Cosmopolitan will not evaluate other people and their beliefs on the basis of his own beliefs.
- He will accommodate other cultural difference as they are.
- He will encourage cultural exchange and enrich his culture with borrowing from other cultures.
- Example:- Hindi, English Film Music
- A modern society appreciates cultural difference.
- In a global world, communications are reducing distances between cultures.
- Cosmopolitan outlook allows diverse influence to enrich one’s own culture
- Cultural change is the way in which societies change their patterns of culture.
- Sources of change can be Internal and External.
- Internal Factors:- New methods of farming boosting agricultural production.
- External Factors:- War, Colonisation
- Cultural change can occur through changes in the natural environment, contact with cultures or process of adaptation.
- Culture is also changes can be initiated through political intervention, technological innovation or ecological transformation
- It is the process by which we become human social being.
- It is the process by which a child gradually become aware about himself, turns in to a person a person with different knowledge and skills.
- It is a life long process.
- Without socialisation an individual would not behave like a human being.
- Primary and secondary socialisation
- Every individual performs multiple roles simultaneously
Agencies of Socialisation
- A child socialised by several agencies and institutions.
- Nuclear family: Parents are the key socializing agents.
- Joint & extended family: Grandparents, parents, uncle. Cousin plays significant role in socialisation.
- Children pick up ways of behaviour characteristics of their parents or others in their neighbourhood on community.
- Peer groups are friendship groups of children of similar age.
- Usually peer group children are highly friendly and co-operative.
- In peer group, a child discover a different kind of interaction within which rules of behaviour can be tested out and explored.
- Peer relationship remain important throughout a person’s life.
- It shapes individual attitudes and behaviour.
- School is a formal socializing agency.
- There are formal curriculum and hidden curriculum.
- It is an essential part of our everyday lives.
- Both electronic and print medias are great importance.
- Internet, television, Films etc.
Other socialising agencies
- Religion, cast, class, clubs, organizations etc.