Class 9 Political Science(Civics) Chapter 1 Notes
Ncert Class 9 Political Science (civics) Chapter 1 Notes WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? in this step by step answer guide . In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Notes. It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Notes for Class nine Social Science WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? below and prepare in your tests easily
WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY?
What is Democracy?
Definition of Democracy
- The word democracy comes from a Greek word ‘Demokratia’. In Greek ‘demos’ means people and ‘kratia’ means rule. So democracy is rule by the people.
- Abraham Lincoln to us, ‘Democracy is government of the people, by the people and for the people.
- Simple definition: democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
Non Democratic Government
- The army ruler of Myanmar were not elected by the people.
- Those who happened to be in control of the army became the rulers of the country.
- Dictators like Pinochet (Chile) are not elected by the people.
- The kings of Saudi Arabia rule not because the people have chosen them to do so put because they happen to be born into the royal family.
FEATURES OF DEMOCRACY
A simple definition the democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the peple.
- In a democracy the final decision making power must rest with those who elected the people.
- A democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have affair change of losing.
- A democratic government rules within limits sets by constitutional law and citizen’s right.
- The opposition parties are allowed to function free before and the elections.
- The democratic governments are based on fundamental principles of political equality.
Major decisions by elected leaders
- In Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf led a military coup in October 1999.
- He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the Chief Executive of the country.
- Later he changed his Designation to President and in 2002 held a referendum in the country that granted him a five year extension.
- The referendum was based on malpractices and fraud.
- In August 2002 he issued a Legal Framework order that amended the Constitution of Pakistan.
According to this Order
- The President can dismiss the national and provincial assemblies.
- Civilian cabinet is supervised by a National Security Council which is dominated by military officers.
- After passing this law, elections were held to the national and provincial assemblies.
- Pakistan has had elections, elected representatives have some powers. But the final power rested with military officers and General Musharraf himself.
Hence, This could not have been called democracy
In a democracy the final decision making power must rest with those elected by the people.
Free and fair electoral competition
What is the name of China Parliament?
National people’s Congress
- In China elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the country’s parliament called Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahul National People’s Congress.
- The National People’s Congress has the power to appoint the President of the country.
- Before contesting elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese communist party.
- Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest elections.
- The government is always formed by the Communist Party.
PRI – Institutional Revolutionary Party
- Mexico holds elections after every six years to elect its President.
- The country has never been under a military or dictator’s rule.
- Until 2000 every election was won by a party called PRI.
- The PRI was known to use many dirty tricks to win elections.
- Who were employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings.
- Teachers of government schools used to force parents to vote for the PRI.
- The polling booths were shifted from one place to another in the last minute.
- It difficult for people to cast their votes. The PRI spent a large sum of money in the campaign for its candidates.
A democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have a fair chance of losing.
- Both China and Mexico government could not be turned as democracy a democracy must be based on a free and fair election where those currently in power have of a fair China of losing, there is no manipulation.
One person, one vote, one value
This principle has now come to be accepted almost all over the world.
- Until 2015, in Saudi Arabia women did not have the right to vote.
- Estonia has made its citizenship rules. People belonging to Russian minority find it difficult to get the right to vote.
- In Fiji, the electoral system is such that the vote of an indigenous Fiji has more value than that of an Indian – Fijian
In a democracy, each adult citizen must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
Rule of law and respect
- Zimbabwe attained independence from white minority rule in 1980.
- The country has been ruled by ZANU-PF.
- Its leader, Robert Mugabe, ruled the country since independence. Elections. Were held regularly and always won by ZANU-PF.
- President Mugabe was popular but also used unfair practices in elections.
- His government changed the constitution.
- Several times to increase the powers of the President and make him less accountable.
- Opposition party workers were harassed and their meeting disrupted.
- Public protests and demonstrations against the government were declared illegal.
- There was a law that limited the right to criticize the President.
- Television and radio were controlled by the government and gave only the ruling party’s version.
- There were independent newspapers but the government harassed those journalists who went against it.
- The government ignored some court judgments that went against it and pressurized judges.
- He was forced out of office in 2017.
In this case, government is not democratic as there is no citizen basic rights, no-political opposition, no judiciary.
A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law and citizens rights.
- A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes, simply because it has won an election.
- Respect some basic rules.
- Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations.
- Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.
Democracy is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
Accordingly, democracy is a form of government in which:
- Rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions.
- Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.
- This choice and opportunity is available to all the people on an equal basis.
- The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens rights.
Arguments against democracy
- Leaders keep changing in a democracy. This leads to instability.
- Democracy is all about political competition and power play. There is no scope for morality.
- So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delays.
- Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people. It leads to bad decisions.
- Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.
- Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them, they should not decide anything.
- Democracy is not a magical solution for all the problems.
- It has not ended poverty in our country and in other parts of the world.
People take their own decisions. Their decisions will be good.
Arguments for democracy
China’s famine of 1958-1961 was the worst recorded famine in world history.
- This was a result of different government policies in the two countries. The existence of democracy In India made the Indian government respond to food scarcity in a way that the Chinese government did not.
- Democracy is better than any other form of government in responding to the needs of the people.
- A non-democratic government may and can respond to the people’s needs but it all depends on the wishes of the people who rule.
- If the rulers don’t want to, they don’t have to act according to the wishes of the people.
- A democracy requires that the rulers have to attend to the needs of the people.
- A democratic government is a better government because it is a more accountable form of government.
- Democracy is based on consultation and discussion.
- A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings.
- A number of people put their heads together.
- They are able to point out possible mistakes in the decision. This takes time.
- But there is a big advantage in taking time over important decisions. This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions.
Thus democracy improves the quality of decision-making
- Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts. India has an amazing social diversity.
- People belong to different regions, speak different languages, practice different religions and have different castes.
- The preferences of one group can clash with those of other groups.
- The conflict can be solved by brutal power.
- Whichever group is more powerful will dictate its terms and others will have to accept that.
- That would lead to resentment and unhappiness.
- Different groups may not be able to live together for long in such a way.
- Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem.
- In democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser.
- Different groups can live with one another peacefully.
- In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together.
- Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens.
- Democracy is based on the principle of political equality.
- The poorest and the least educated has the same status as the rich and the educated.
- Democracy is better than other forms of government because it allows us to correct is own mistakes.
- The big advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be hidden for long.
- There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes.
- Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed. This cannot happen in a non-democratic government.
BROADER MEANINGS OF DEMOCRACY
- Democracy takes in our times is that of a representative democracy.
- In the countries we call democracy, all the people do not rule.
- A majority is allowed to take decisions on behalf of all the people. The majority of people rule through their elected representatives.
- A democratic decision involves consultation with and consent of all those who are affected by the decision. Those who are not powerful have the same say in taking the decision as those who are powerful.
- Thus democracy is also a principle that can be applied to any sphere of life.
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Ncert Class 9 Political Science (civics) Chapter 1 Notes WHAT IS DEMOCRACY? WHY DEMOCRACY? contains extremely important points, and for each chapter, each concept has been simplified to make it easier to remember and increase your chances of achieving excellent exam results. Exam Preparation References Here are some tips on how these solutions can help you prepare for the exam.
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