Sociology Chapter 4 Important Question Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Important Question Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 Important Question Change and Development in Rural Society Term 2 2022
Multiple Choice Questions
1. In India, in 2018-19, what was the share of employment in the primary sector (agriculture and mining)?
(a) 43% (b) 70% (c) 15.19% (d) 22%
Ans. (a) In India, in 2018-19, nearly 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and 32% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.)
2. Which of the following is/are characteristics of the organised sector?
(a) They have proper rules and regulations.
(b) Modes of payment is transparent.
(c) Employees cannot be removed from office without prior notice.
(d) All of the above
Ans. (d) All of the above are characteristics of organised sector.
3. Which of the following statement is true regarding industrialisation?
(a) Industrialisation has no relation with the phenomenon of urbanisation.
(b) Industrialisation based on the division of labour.
(c) Industrialisation had only positive consequences.
(d) Industrialisation remove gender-based wage discrimination.
Ans. (b) Only statement (b) is true because industrialisation involved a detailed division of labour. Classical sociologists often associate industrialisation with a phenomenon like urbanisation.
Early sociologists believed this process had both positive and negative consequences, where gender-based wage discrimination was prevalent. Therefore, other statements are incorrect.
4. In small scale industries employed only 72 per cent of the total workforce engaged in the manufacturing sector.
(a) 1999 (b) 1984
(c) 2001 (d) 1991
Ans. (d) In 1991, small scale industries employed only 72% of the total workforce engaged in the manufacturing sector.
5. The task of a manager is to and get out of workers.
(a) control workers; more work
(b) hire more workers; more work
(c) beat workers; less work
(d) give food to workers; less work
Ans. (a) The task of a manager is to control workers and get more work out of them.
6. Scientific management also known as Taylorism or Industrial Engineering was invented in
(a) 1870’s (b) 1880’s
(c) 1890’s (d) 1900’s
Ans. (d) Scientific management also known as Taylorism or Industrial Engineering was invented in 1900 by an American called Frederick Winslow Taylor.
7. Which of the following are the consequences of ‘outsourcing’?
(a) Low wages
(b) Poor working conditions
(c) Permanent employees are reduced
(d) All of the above
Ans. (d ) All of the above are the consequences of outsourcing.
8. Who argued that the use of machinery actually de-skills workers?
(a) Harry Braverman
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Max Weber
(d) Emile Durkheim
Ans. (a) The famous sociologist, Harry Braverman, argues that the use of machinery actually de-skills workers.
9. Which of the following is correct about Marx and Mahatma Gandhi?
(a) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi supported machinery
(b) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as a danger to employment
(c) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi believed in alienation of work
(d) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw unemployment as a big concern
Ans. (b) Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as a danger to employment. The basic task of a manager is to control workers and get more work out of them.
10. The fish processing plants along the coastline employ mostly single women from and
(a) Maharashtra and Kerala
(b) Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
(c) Tamil Nadu and Kerala
(d) Tamil Nadu and Punjab
Ans. (c) The fish processing plants along the coastline employ mostly single young women from Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
11. Home-based work is mainly done by and who are paid on piece rate.
(a) men, children
(b) women, children
(c) women, men
(d) old people, educated elite
Ans. (b) Home-based work is mainly done by women and children who are paid on piece rate. This includes the manufacture of lace, zari or brocade, bides, agarbatti and many such products.
12. The Bombay Textile Strike of 1982 was led by which trade union leader?
(a) Datta Samant
(c) Kisan Salunke
(b) Jaiprakash Bhilare
(d) Datta Iswalkar
Ans. (a) The Bombay Textile Strike of 1982 was led by the trade union leader, Dr. Datta Samant.
13. _______ leads to greater equality; at least in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do not matter anymore on trains, buses or in cyber cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality is growing in the world.
(a) Globalisation (b) Colonisation
(c) Industrialisation (d) Urbanisation
Ans. (c) Industrialisation leads to greater equality; at least in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes.
14. The government is trying to sell its share in several public sector companies, a process which is known as. In modern foods, which was set up by the government to make healthy bread available at cheap prices, and which was the first company to be privatised, 60% of the workers were forced to retire in the first five years.
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) The government is trying to sell its share in several public sector companies, a process which is known as disinvestment. Many government workers are scared that after disinvestment, they will lose their jobs.
Directions : (Q.No. 1-4) Each of these questions contains two statements, Assertion (A) and Reason
(R). Each of these questions also has four alternative choices, any one of which is the correct answer. You have to select one of the codes (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is True and R is false
(d) A is false and R is true
1. Assertion (A) : Licenses are no longer required to open industries.
Reason (R) : The Indian Government has followed the policy of liberalisation since 1990.
Ans. (a) Licenses are no-Ionger required to open industries in India due to the liberalisation policy of 1990. This policy increased the involvement of foreign companies in sectors like telecom, civil aviation, etc., earlier reserved for government. MNCs have contributed a large proportion of employment generation in India since then. Therefore, both A and R are true, where R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Assertion (A) : Global liberalisation and privatisation seems to be going down.
Reason (R) : Liberalisation and privatisation tend to increase income inequality.
Ans. (d) Global liberalisation and privatisation seems to be on the rise. Liberalisation and privatisation tend to be linked to increasing income inequality across the world. Thus, A is false and R is true.
3. Assertion (A) : Employment by the government was a major avenue for increasing the well-being of the population, but now even that is coming down.
Reason (R) : Those who do have regular salaried jobs are becoming more precarious as contract labour becomes more prevalent.
Ans. (a) Employment by the government was a major avenue to increase the well-being of individuals, but this number is coming down. The notion of contract jobs has taken precedence in government employment, decreasing the employment rate for regular salaried jobs. This makes the regular salaried people more precarious. A major chunk of the population is still involved in the agriculture sector, and relatively fewer people are employed in the service sector. Therefore, both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.
4. Assertion (A) : Rules are strictly followed in smaller mines and quarries.
Reason (R) : Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, emission of gases and ventilation failures.
Ans. (d) Rules are not followed even in smaller mines and quarries. The workers are exposed to low wages and dangerous conditions such as gas emission, fire, floods, etc. The contractors don’t maintain proper registers for workers to escape the financial responsibility of their accidents, thereby accumulating profit for themselves. Therefore, A is false and R is true.
Case Based MCQs
1. Job recruitment as a factory worker takes a different pattern. In the past, many workers got their jobs through contractors or jobbers. In the Kanpur textile mills, these jobbers were known as mistris, and were themselves workers. They came from the same regions and communities as the workers, but because they had the owner’s backing, they bossed over the workers. On the other hand, the mistri also put community-related pressures on the worker. Now-a-days, the importance of the jobber has come down, and both management and unions play a role in recruiting their own people. Many workers also expect that they can pass on their jobs to their children. Many factories employ badli workers who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave.
(i) ________ workers are the workers, who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave,
(a) Mistri (b) Labour
(c) Badli (d) None of these
Ans. (c) Badli workers are the workers, who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave.
(ii) What is/are the important components of employment opportunity?
(a) Self-employment (b) Organisational job
(c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Neither (a) nor (b)
Ans. (c) The employment opportunities have two components i.e. job in an organisation and self-employment. The scheme of Government of India ‘Stand UP India Scheme’ and ‘Make in India’ are programmes by which employment and self employment becomes possible.
(iii) ‘Stand UP India Scheme’ is a scheme for_____________ sections of the society:
(a) esteemed (b) acclaimed
(c) marginalised (d) None of these
Ans. (c) ‘Stand UP India Scheme’ is for the marginalised sections, by which employment and self employment becomes possible.
2. Another way of increasing output is by organising work. An American called Frederick Winslow Taylor invented a new system in the 1890s, which he called ‘X’. It is also known as Taylorism or industrial engineering. Under his system, all work was broken down into its smallest repetitive elements and divided between workers. Workers were timed with the help of stopwatches and had to fulfill a certain target every day. Production was further speeded up by the introduction of the assembly line. Each worker sat along a conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product. The speed of work could be set by adjusting the speed of the conveyor belt. In the 1980s, there was an attempt to shift front this system of direct control to indirect control, where workers are supposed to motivate and monitor themselves. But often, we find that the old Taylorist processes survive.
(i) What does X in the above passage stands imply?
(a) Mechanic management
(b) Scientific management
(c) Time management
(d) Exploitative management
Ans. (b) The X in the above passage implies scientific management. Frederick Winslow Taylor invented this system for organised labour where workers were divided into different groups performing timed tasks.
(ii) Apart from scientific management, the concept of ___ was introduced to speed up the production.
(a) Assembly’ line
(b) Timed labour
(c) Line system
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans. (a) Apart from scientific management, the concept of the assembly line was introduced to increase production. Each worker sat on the conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product.
(iii) In the 1980s, as a part of indirect control, workers had to motivate and __________ themselves.
(a) Pushed (b) Drive
(c) Monitor (d) Control
Ans. (c) In the 1980s, as a part of indirect control, workers had to motivate and monitor themselves to increase production.
3. Study the diagram given below and answer the following questions.
(i) According to 2018-2019, how many people were employed in the tertiary sector?
(a) 17 per cent (b) 32 per cent
(c) 20 per cent (d) 60 per cent
Ans. (b) In India, in 2018-19, nearly 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and 32% in the tertian- sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.)
(ii) In the year 2018-19, how many percentage of workers were enrolled in self employment?
(a) 15.4% (b) 23.8%
(c) 61.4% (d) 52%
Ans. (d) The percentage of workers were enrolled in self employment 52%.
(iii) The major difference between developing and developed countries in the number of people in _____ employment.
(a) regular salaried
(c) casual wage labour
(d) All of the above
Ans. (a) The major difference between developing and developed countries in the number of people in regular salaried employment.
Short Answer (SA) Type Questions
1. Discuss the main features of industrialisation in India.
Ans. Main features of industrialisation in India are as follows
• The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the Western model and in several different ways.
• In India, about 50% of the population is self-employed, only nearly 14% are in regular salaried employment, while approximately 30% are casual labour.
• The first modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways.
• After independence, the Central Government took over the commanding heights of the economy. This involved defence, transport and communication, power, mining and other projects which only government had the power to do and which was necessary for private industry to flourish.
2. What are the social implications of organised sector?
Ans. The social implications of organised sector are as follows
• Only a few people work in large firms where they get to meet people from various backgrounds and regions. Unlike urban regions, large firms have well-defined rules with a transparent recruitment process along with provisions for complaints and redressals.
• Few Indians have access to secure jobs and benefits. Two-third of those enjoy this work for the government. Government employment has contributed towards overcoming the boundaries of caste, religion and region.
• Since very few people are members of a union, a feature of organised sector, people in the unorganised sector do not experience collective fighting for wages and safe working conditions.
3. Discuss the impact of disinvestment on employees.
Ans. The impact of disinvestment on employees are as follows
• Many government workers are scared that after disinvestment, they will lose their jobs.
• In the Modern Foods, which was set up by the government to make healthy bread available at cheap prices, and which was the first company to be privatised, 60% of the workers were forced to retire in the first five years.
• Indian agriculture as well as service sector such as shops, banks, the information and technology, industries, hotels and other services, are employing more people on contract basis. This develops job insecurity.
4. How has liberalisation affected employment patterns in India? (NCERT)
Ans. The Indian Government has followed policy of liberalisation since 1990. The foreign companies are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for the government including telecom, civil aviation, power etc. So government jobs and employment have come down and private especially MNCs jobs have increased in India. Liberalisation has impacted the employment in the following manner
The cautions that affect employment patterns in India after liberalisation are as follows
• Licenses are no longer required to open industries. Definitely this policy has increased chances of self-employment.
• Due to liberalisation foreign products are now easily available in Indian market and shops.
• It increased the employment opportunities in Industries and MNC s
• It increased the occupational mobility of people due to transportation facilities.
• It has also increased participation of women in occupational sector.
• It has increased Foreign Direct Investments and affected the corporate occupational opportunities of people.
• 11 led to occupational migration of village people to cities.
5. Explain the major forms of job recruitment in India.
Ans. There are many forms of job recruitment in India, where very few people are recruited through advertisements. In professions like plumbing and carpentry people are self-employed. Among the educated sections , tutors, writers and architects are self employed as their contacts play a dominant role in acquiring work for them. There is a lot of flexibility in their working hours.
A few workers are employed as permanent head worker and they get proper compensation, status and position for their work, whereas sometimes personnel are employed even on contract basis. Major forms of job recruitment are as follows
(i) Newspaper (ii) Employment Exchange
(iii) Contractors (iv) Outsourcing
(v) Personal contacts
6. What is Taylorism or Industrial Engineering?
Ans. In this system, all work was broken down into smallest repetitive elements and divided between workers. Workers had to complete work in the fixed time limit (stop watch was also used for this purpose). Production was further speeded up by the introduction of the assembly line each worker sat along a conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product. The speed of the work could be set by adjusting the speed to the conveyor belt. In the 1950’s, attempts were made to shift from this system of direct control to indirect control where workers are supposed to monitor and motivate themselves.
7. Why both Marx and Gandhiji saw mechanisation as danger to employment?
Ans. The basic task of manager is to control workers and get more work out of them. There are two main ways of making workers produce more. One is to extend the working hours. The other is to increase the amount that is produced within a given time period.
Machines help to increase production but it also creates danger that eventually machines will replace workers. That is why both Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as danger to employment.
8. What are some problems faced by the mine workers?
Ans. Some problems faced by the mine workers are as follows
• Rules are not followed in smaller mines and quarries. Labourers are kept under contractual system and are not given proper wages.
• Many contractors do not maintain proper register of workers, thus avoiding any responsibility for accident and benefits.
• Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, emission of gases and ventilation failures. Many workers develop breathing problems and diseases like tuberculosis and silicosis.
• The mine workers working in underground mines have to work in both hot sun and rain and face injuries due to mine blasting falling objects etc.
9. In the account of brick no space making, bidi rolling, software engineers or mines that are described in the boxes, describe the social composition of the workers. What are the working conditions and facilities available?
How do girls like Madhu feel about their works? (NCERT)
Ans. The social composition of workers include
• Brick Making Local or migrant dalits, members of potter caste.
• Bidi Rolling Women, children, uneducated class.
• Software Engineers Educated women, educated men, upper caste.
• Mines Lower caste and uneducated class.
The social composition of workers has changed in almost all the industries due to change in technology or the kind of work. The working conditions are really poor in terms of brickmaking and bidi rolling industries as there is no occupational safety and occupational security. The equal work and equal pay is also important to understand in the context of IT companies in metropolitan cities.
Girls like Madhu, enjoy bidi making as it provides them an opportunity to sit close to their mother and other women and listen to them and chat.
These girls fill tobacco into the rolled tendu leaves.
These girls spend more time in this activity apart from the time spent doing household chores. Due to long hours of sitting in the same posture daily, they suffer from backache. These girls want to restart their schooling but their poor financial condition do not allow them to do so.
Long Answer (LA) Type Questions
1. Discuss industrial society and different views of theorists on it.
Ans. Industrial society refers to a society that is driven by the use of technology to enable mass production. It generally supports a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Industrialisation often leads to greater equality and there are less disparities in societies with high levels of industrial development. The role of caste distinctions is reduced when people are working in factories or travelling in trains. With the decrease in the social inequalities, the economic condition is improving and the income level is rising.
There exists a direct relationship between the decline of the social evils and the growth of industrial society.
View of Theorists on Industrial Society-
Social theorists like Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of features with industrialisation such as urbanisation, loss of face to face relationships in rural areas and their substitution by anonymous professional relationships in modern workplaces. People did not see the end result of the production process, as they were only part of a small part of production. According to them, industrialisation involves a detailed division of labour and their work is often exhaustive and repetitive but it was much better from being unemployed.
Marx specifically emphasised upon his concept of alienation of labour, whereby he illustrated how a labour or a worker is disconnected with the product he is producing. A labour is working only for survival and to meet his needs.
There were eventually mixed views of the theorists on the effects of industrialisation. But eventually, they agreed upon the positive impact of industrialisation on modernisation and the benefit that industrialisation led to modernisation.
2. Discuss the main points of industrialisation in the early years of India’s independence.
Ans. The initial modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways. After independence, the government took over the commanding heights of the economy. This involved defence, transport and communication power, mining and other projects which only government had the power to do and which was also necessary for private industry to flourish.
In India’s mixed economic policy, some sectors were reserved for government, while other were open to private sectors. But within that, the government tried to ensure through its licensing policy that industries were spread over different regions.
Before independence, industries were located mainly in the port cities like Madras, Calcutta and Bombay. But since then, we see that place like Vadodara, Coimbatore, Bengaluru, Pune, Faridabad and Rajkot have become industrial centres. The government also tried to encourage the small scale sector through special incentives.
Many- items like paper and wood products, stationary, glass and ceramics more reserved for small scale sector. In 1991, large scale industry- employed only 28 per cent of the total workforce engaged in manufacture while the small scale and traditional industry employed 72 per cent.
3. Do you agree that all sections of people have benefitted from the liberalisation policies in India? Justify your answer with examples. (Delhi 2018)
Ans. All sections of people are not benefitted from the liberalisation policies in India. Effect of liberalisation is not uniform on all sections.
After Effects of Liberalisation
‘After Effects of Liberalisation’ are as follows
• After this policy, the government tried to sell its share in several public sector companies, a process which is known as disinvestment. With disinvestment, many government workers feared that they will lose their jobs.
• More and more companies are reducing the number of permanent employees and outsourcing their work to smaller companies or even to homes. For the multinational companies, this outsourcing is done across the globe, with developing countries like India providing cheap labour. As small companies have to compete for orders from the big companies, they keep wages low as well as their working conditions are often poor.
• India is still largely an agricultural country. The service sector i.e. shops, banks, IT Industry, hotels and other services are employing more people and the urban middle class is growing.
• At the same time, very few people in India have access to secure jobs and even the small number in regular salaried employed are becoming more insecure with incoming of contract labour. Now a days, employment by government is also coming down. According to economists, both liberalisation and privatisation is associated with rising income inequality.
• As the secure employment in large industry is declining, the government is embarking on the policy of land acquisition for industry. These industries do not necessarily provide employment to the people of the surrounding areas, but cause major pollution.
• Many farmers, especially adivasis, protest at low rate of compensation and the fact they are forced to become casual labour living and working on the footpaths of India’s big cities.
Case Based Questions
1. Another major difference between developing and developed countries is the number of people in regular salaried employment. In developed countries, the majority arc formally employed. In India, over 52% of the workers are self-employed, only about 24% are in regular salaried employment, while approximately 24% are in casual labour. Economists and others often make a distinction between the organised or formal and unorganised or informal sector. There is a debate over how to define these sectors. According to one definition, the organised sector consists of all units employing ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits. In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector.
(i) What is meant by unorganised or informal sector?
Ans. Unorganised or informal sector consists of units that needs not be registered with the government. Employees in this sector may not get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits. In India over 90% of the work comes from unorganised or in private sector.
(ii) Define organised sector as per the given passage?
Ans. The organised sector is a government-registered sector employing ten or more people throughout the year in all units. This sector ensures proper wages and employee benefits.
(iii) What differentiates India from the developed nation in terms of employment? Use the data in the passage to support your answer.
Ans. India differentiates itself from the developed nation based on people involved organised sector. Unlike developed nations, 90% of India’s population is engaged in the informal or unorganised sector. Data shows that 52% of workers are self-employed, 24% are casual labour and only 24% are securely employed with a regular salary.
2. Gandhiji on machinery, in Hind Swaraj 1924: “What I object to is the craze for machinery, not machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour-saving machinery. Men go on ‘saving labour’ till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to the 1934 of starvation. I want to save time and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all. I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of the few, but in the hands of all.’’
“When as a nation we adopt the spinning-wheel, we not only solve the question of unemployment but we declare that we have no intention of exploiting any nation, and we also end the exploitation of the poor by the rich.”
(i) What are the ways to make workers produce more?
Ans. There are two main ways of making workers produce more. One is to extend the working hours. The other is to increase the amount that is produced within a given time period.
(ii) What is ‘Scientific- Management’?
Ans. A system in which all work was broken down into its smallest repetitive elements, and divided between workers was known as scientific management.
‘Scientific Management’ was introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1890s.
(iii) Why did Gandhiji object to “the craze for machinery’’ in this passage?
Ans. Gandhiji objected to the craze of machinery because he argued the labour-saving machinery is contributing to starvation and loss of employment. It leads to wealth accumulation in the hands of few, leaving others with nothing.
3. Analyse the following pie-chart and answer the following questions.
(i) What do you understand by home-based work?
Ans. Home-based work is a significant part of the economy. This includes lace, zari or brocade, carpets, bidis, agarbattis, and a variety of other items. Women and children are primarily responsible for this work. An agent not only provides raw materials, but also collects the finished product. Staff at home are paid on a piece-rate basis, based on how many pieces they produce.
(ii) The above pie chart shows how the value of the finished bidi is distributed. Who gets what amount, and why?
Ans. The value is distributed between the inputs, bidi workers, contractors, manufacturers and distributors. The manufacturer gets the maximum amount because of the image of the brand. The others get significantly lower value with the distributors getting the least value.
(iii) How do bidis get their identity?
Ans. Bidis are made in forested villages. Villagers pluck tendu leaves and sell them to the forest department. These leaves are auctioned to bidi factory owners, who send them to a contractor. The contract ultimately gets the bidi rolled from the home-based workers, mostly women. After collecting these rolled bidis, the contractor gives his own name to these bidis and sells them.