Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India’s External Relations
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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India’s External Relations
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 India’s External Relations
Q 1. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against each of these statements.
- Non-alignment allowed India to gain assistance both from the USA and USSR.
- India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning.
- The cold war has affected the relationship between India and Pakistan.
- The Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1971 was the result of India’s closeness to the USA.
Ans. (a) True; (b) True; (c) True; (d) False.
Q 2. Match the following:
(a) The goal of India’s foreign policy in the period 1950-1964
(ii) Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India
(ii) Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development
(c) Bandung Conference
(iii) Five principal of peaceful coexistence
(d) Dalai Lama
(iv) Led to the establishment of NAM
- The goal of India’s Foreign policy in the period 1950-1954-(ii) Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development.
- Panchsheel -(iii) Five Principal of peaceful coexistence.
- Bandung Conference -(iv) Led to the establishment of NAM.
- Dalai Lama -(i) Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India.
Q 3. Why did Nehru regard the conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.
Ans. Nehru regarded the conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence due to the following reasons:
- India decided to conduct its foreign relations with an aim to respect the sovereignty of all other nations and achieve security through the maintenance of peace. This aim is reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy under Article 51 of the Indian Constitution.
- India always advocated the policy of Non-alignment, made efforts to reduce cold war tensions and contributed human resources to UN peace-keeping operations. India’s leadership had to pursue its national interests within the prevailing international context.
- Hence, India took an independent stand and got assistance from members of both the blocs.
Q 4. “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate”. Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
Ans. The statement is justified to a maximum extent to be proved during ‘Sino-Indian Conflict of 1962’ to dent India’s image at home and international level. India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the issues. The Soviet Union remained neutral during the conflict:
- The China war dented India’s image at home and abroad. India had to approach the Americans and the British for military assistance to tide over the crisis. It induced a sense of national humiliation and at the same time strengthened a spirit of nationalism.
- Pt. Nehru was also criticised for his naive assessment of the Chinese intentions and the lack of military preparedness.
- The political mood of the country had begun to change, when in and debated in Lok Sabha.
- The Sino-Indian conflict split the Communist party of India in 1964s split fraction formed a communist party of India (CPI-M).
- The war with China alerted the Indian leadership to the volatile situation in the Northeast region.
- Apart from being isolated and extremely underdeveloped, this region also presented India with the challenge of national integration and political unity.
Q 5. Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.
Ans. Two Aspects to be Supported:
- India always maintained her dignity and image of a peace-loving country by taking initiatives to bring about equality and understanding among the nations i.e. India supported to end Korean War in 1953, French rule in China, US role in Vietnam.
- India’s initiatives for Non- alignment are also appreciable for the maintenance of mutual understanding and security. During post-cold war era also, NAM had become an effective tool to make the Security Council more effective and democratic.
Two Aspects to be Changed:
- In the course of a decade of 1962-72, India faced three wars and its peaceful image played a very limited role.
- Conflict with neighbouring countries like China and Pakistan derailed India’s concept of regional co-operation under SAARC. Hence, India must adopt diplomatic and defensive postures in its foreign policy to maintain its independent entity.
Q 6. Write short notes on the following:
- India’s nuclear policy
- Consensus in foreign policy matters
a. India’s Nuclear Policy:
- The first nuclear explosion was undertaken by India in May 1974.
- Pt. Nehru always promoted science and technology to build a modern India, i.e. initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
- India was against nuclear weapons. Hence, pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. However, the nuclear arsenal kept rising. when Communist China conducted nuclear tests in October 1964, the five nuclear weapon powers, the US, USSR, UK, France, and China (Taiwan then represented China) – also the five Permanent Members of the UN Security Council – tried to impose the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world.
b. Consensus in Foreign Policy Matters:
- The first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a crucial role in setting the national agenda for foreign policy.
- Both as the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister, he exercised a profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.
- The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve hard-earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity, and promote rapid economic development. Nehru wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non- alignment.
- There are minor differences among political parties about how to conduct external relations. Indian politics is generally marked by a broad agreement among the parties on national integration, protection of international boundaries, and on questions of national interest.
- Therefore, we find that in the course of the decade of 1962-1971, when India faced three wars, or even later when different parties came to power from time to time, foreign policy has played only a limited role in party politics.
Q 7. India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or would you say that this was a result of the international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.
Ans. No, this was not the failure of foreign policy but this was a result of the international situation:
The Chinese Invasion 1962:
- Serious conflicts arose when China annexed Tibet in 1950 and removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the government of India did not oppose this openly.
- As more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian government grew uneasy.
- The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the government of India was allowing anti-China activities to take place from within India.
- Another border dispute arose China claimed Aksai-chin area in the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir and much of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in what was then called NEFA (North Eastern Frontier Agency) within the Indian territory. Between 1957 and 1959, the Chinese occupied the Aksai-chin area and built a strategic road there.
- Despite a very long correspondence and discussion among top leaders, these differences could not be resolved. Several small border skirmishes between the armies of the two countries took place.
War with Pakistan:
- A more serious armed conflict between the two countries began in 1965. In April 1965 Pakistan launched armed attacks in the Rann of Kutch area of Gujarat. This was followed by a bigger offensive in Jammu and Kashmir in August- September.
- In order to ease the pressure on the Kashmir front, Shastri ordered Indian troops to launch a counter-offensive on the Punjab border. In a fierce battle, the Indian army reached close to Lahore.
- The hostilities came to an end with the UN intervention.
- Later, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s’s General Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Agreement, brokered by the Soviet Union, in January 1966.
- Though India could inflict considerable military loss on Pakistan, the 1965 war added to India’s already difficult economic situation.
Bangladesh War of 1971:
- Beginning in 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest internal crisis. The country’s first general election produced a split verdict – Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s party emerged a winner in West Pakistan, while the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against years of being treated as second class citizens by the rulers based in West Pakistan.
- In 1971, the Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on the people of East Pakistan. In response to this, the people started a struggle to liberate ‘Bangladesh’ from Pakistan.
- Throughout 1971, India had to bear the burden of about 80 lakh refugees who fled East Pakistan and took shelter in the neighbouring areas in India. India extended moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh. Pakistan accused India of a conspiracy to break it up.
- After months of diplomatic tension and military build-up, a full-scale war between India and Pakistan broke out in December 1971. Pakistani aircraft attacked Punjab and Rajasthan, while the army moved on the Jammu and Kashmir front. India retaliated with an attack involving the air force, navy and the army on both the western and the Eastern front.
- Welcomed and supported by the local population, the Indian army made rapid progress in East Pakistan. Within ten days the Indian army had surrounded Dhaka from three sides and the Pakistani army of about 90,000 had to surrender. with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral cease-fire.
- The signing of the Shimla Agreement between Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 3 July 1972 formalised the return of peace. Most people in India saw this as a moment of glory and a clear sign of India’s growing military prowess.
Q 8. Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be an important regional power? Argue your case with the Bangladesh war of 1971 as an example.
Ans. Bangladesh War 1971:
- In 1970, Pakistan faced its biggest crisis in the way for a split verdict e. Zulficar Ali Bhutto’s Party emerged as the winner in West Pakistan while Awami League led by ‘Sheikh Mujibur-Rehman’ swept through East Pakistan.
- The Bengali population of East Pakistan had voted to protest against discriminatory attitude of West Pakistan. The Pakistani rulers were not willing to accept the democratic verdict. Nor were they ready to accept the Awami League’s demand for a federation.
- In 1971, the Pakistani army arrested Sheikh Mujib and unleashed a reign of terror on East Pakistan. This started people’s struggle to liberate Bangladesh from Pakistan.
- India had to bear the burden of about 80 Iakh refugees who fled from East Pakistan to take shelter. Hence, India had to extend moral and material support to the freedom struggle in Bangladesh.
- A full-scale war between India and Pakistan in December 1971 broke out when Pakistan attacked Punjab and Rajasthan. India retaliated with an attack involving the air force, navy and the army on both the western and the Eastern front.
- Within ten days the Indian army surrounded Dhaka and Pakistan had to surrender with Bangladesh as a free country, India declared a unilateral cease-fire and Shimla Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan in 1972.
- Most people in India saw this moment as a glory of India and a clear sign of India’s growing military powers.
On the above-mentioned reference, we may conclude yes’. India’s foreign Policy reflects her desire to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971. ‘ Yes’, India’s foreign policy reflects her desire to be an important regional power which was revealed during the Bangladesh war of 1971.
Q 9. How does political leadership of a nation affect its foreign policy? Explain this with the help of examples from India’s foreign policy.
Ans. Foreign policy of any country is the mirror of national interests as in India:
- During non-congress government in 1977, Janata Party announced to follow non-alignment genuinely. This implied that the pro-Soviet tilt in foreign policy will be corrected. Since then, all governments took initiatives to restore better relations with China and entered into close ties with the US.
- In Post 1990 period the ruling parties were criticised for their pro-US foreign policy. During this period Russia had lost its global pre-eminence despite it has been India’s good friend. Hence, India’s foreign policy shifted to a more pro-US strategy.
- Besides, the contemporary international situation is also more influenced by economic interests than military interests so made an impact on India’s foreign policy i.e. Indo-Pakistan relations have witnessed new developments.
Q 10. Read the Passage:
“Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs… It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries”. —Jawaharlal Nehru
- Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
- Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer,
- If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?
- Nehru wanted to keep off military blocs to maintain a friendly and peaceful relationship with all nations of the world as well as to maintain India’s uniqueness at the international stage.
- No, the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty did not violate the principle of non-alignment because it was not to maintain military relations but to maintain diplomatic friendly relations.
- NAM emphasises on:
- terrorism except staying away from military blocs.