Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1 Power Sharing
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NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1 Power Sharing
Class 10 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1 Power Sharing
Q. 1. What are the different forms of power – sharing in modern democracies ? Give an example of each of these .
Ans . The different forms of power – sharing in modern democracies are :
Horizontal Division of Power : It is the sharing of power among the different organs of government , for example , power – sharing by the Executive , the Legislature and the Judiciary . In this type of power – sharing arrangement , different organs of government , placed at the same level , exercised different powers . Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power , thereby putting a check on each other . For example , judges are appointed by the executive , they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures .
Vertical Division of Power : It is a system of power sharing among governments at different levels . A general government for the entire country usually known as federal government and governments at provincial or regional levels also known as State Government in India . In India , we refer to it as the Central Government , State Governments , Municipality , Gram Panchayat , etc. The Constitution lays down the powers of different levels of government .
Division of Power among different Social Groups : Power can also be shared among different groups which differ socially like different religious and linguistic groups . ‘ Community Government ‘ in Belgium is a good example of this type of power sharing . The system of reserved constituencies in India is another example . Such an arrangement is used to give minority communities space in the government and administration and a fair share in power , who otherwise would feel alienated from the government .
Division of Power among Political Parties , Pressure Groups and Movements : In contemporary democracies such a division takes the form of competition among different parties , which in turn ensure that power does not remain in one hand and is shared among different political parties representing different ideologies and social groups . Sometimes this kind of sharing is direct when two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections .
Q.2 . State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context .
Ans . Prudential Reason : Power sharing helps in reducing the conflict between various social groups . Hence , power sharing is necessary for maintaining social harmony and peace . In India , seats are reserved for the weaker sections of society . Example : reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in jobs and government . This allows the weaker sections also to participate in the running of the Government and upliftment in the society .
Moral Reason : It upholds the spirit of democracy . In a truly democratic setup , the citizens too have a stake in governance . In India , citizens can come together to debate and criticise the policies and decisions of the government . This , in turn , puts pressure on the government to rethink its policies and reconsider its decisions . People have a say in the government and government is answerable to the people .
Q. 3. After reading this chapter , three students drew different conclusions . Which of these do you agree with and why ? Give your reasons in about 50 words .
Thomman – Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious , linguistic or ethnic divisions .
Mathayi – Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions .
Ouseph – Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions .
Ans . Ouseph’s statement is the most logical , and thus , should be agreed on . Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions . A democratic society is one where its members or citizens through participation acquire a stake in the system . Power sharing not only prevents conflict between various groups in the society but it also generates a sense of belongingness among them to the society . No single community can take a decision unilaterally . It is realized that the unity of the country is only possible by respecting feelings and interest of different communities . Power sharing helps to maintain a balance of power among various institutions and also keep a check on how it is exercised . It reduces conflicts between different social groups . Irrespective of the size of a country or the type of society , people will be more satisfied , where they have a voice in the functioning and decision making processes of the system . Power sharing is the spirit of democracy . People have the right to be consulted on how they are to be governed .
Q.4 . The Mayor of Merchtem , a town near Brussels in Belgium , has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools . He said that the ban would help all non – Dutch speakers integrate into this Flemish town . Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangements ? Give your reasons in about 50 words .
Ans . No , This measure is not in keeping with Belgium’s power – sharing arrangements . The arrangements seek to maintain peace between the French and Dutch – speaking communities . By banning French , the mayor will cause civil unrest . Both languages should be made acceptable in the town’s schools . The unity of a country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions . Thus bilingual education system will be a better way to integrate the people of the town . Such a realisation would ving result in a mutually acceptable arrangement for sharing power .
Q. 5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power – sharing offered in this . ” We need to give more power to the panchayats to realise the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution . Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy . It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy – in the hands of the people . Giving power to Panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative When people efficiency . participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes , they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes . This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen . Thus , Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy . ”
Ans . The prudential reason for power sharing offered in this passage is giving power to panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency . Panchayats are at the local level hence deepen democracy in our country . Local people have better ideas and knowledge about local problems . They can better understand the problems of the people , thus performing better . Introduction of panchayats has made the country more united and stronger . It has also made the administration easier .
Q. 6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favour of and against power – sharing . Identify those which are in favour of power – sharing and select the answer using the codes given below ?
Power sharing :
A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
C. delays the decision – making process
D. accommodates diversities
E. increases instability and divisiveness
F. promotes people’s participation in government
G. undermines the unity of a country
( a )
( b )
( c )
( d )
( a )
Explanation : In a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible .
Q. 7 . Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka .
A. In Belgium , the Dutch – speaking majority of people tried to impose their domination on the minority French – speaking community .
B. In Sri Lanka , the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala speaking majority .
C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture , language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs .
D. The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines .
Which of the statements given above are correct ?
( i ) A , B , C and D
( ii ) A , B and D
( iii ) C and D
( iv ) B , C and D
Ans . ( ii ) B , C and D
Explanation : The democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy . Sri Lankan Tamils felt that none of the major political parties led by Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture . In Belgium , the leaders have realized that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions .
Q. 8. Match List I (forms of power-sharing) with List-II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists :
Q. 9. Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below :
A. Power sharing is good for democracy .
B. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups .
Which of these statements are true and false ?
( i ) A is true but B is false
( ii ) Both A and B are true
( iii ) Both A and B are false
( iv ) A is false but B is true
Ans . ( ii ) Both A and B are true .
Explanation : There are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in legislatures and administration .
Q. 1. I have a simple equation in mind .
Sharing power = dividing power = weakening the country .
Why do we start by talking about this ?
Ans . Sharing of power does not always mean weakening the country . However , there is no doubt that sometimes it might create a problem by delaying decisions which are for the welfare of the people . But mostly there is a possibility of better decision making . This is because :
● It ensures people from all spheres have a say in the government .
● It ensures that maximum people take part in decision making . This makes the decision making more democratic .
● It makes the country more powerful by reducing conflict between different social groups .
Q. 2. What’s wrong if the majority community rules ? If Sinhalas don’t rule in Sri Lanka , where else will they rule ?
Ans . In a democracy , it is the established principle that the government is run by the majority . But the majority does not mean only the majority in numbers based on religion or community . In its true sense , majority means majority of opinion . Sometimes , majority community may also have part in majority opinion . So , rule by majority community is not offensive in democracy , if it is based on opinion .
Of course , Sinhalas form the majority community of Sri Lanka and it should have a bigger share in the government . But , it does not mean that other’s h do not get proper representation . If it is so , it will not be a true democracy
Rule of the majority does not imply the oppression of minorities . Sinhala which had a majority and formed government in Sri Lanka disregarded the wishes and needs of minority .
Q. 3. Annette studies in a Dutch medium school in the northern region of Belgium . Many French speaking students in her school want the medium of instruction to be French . Selvi studies in a school in the northern region of Sri Lanka . All the students in her school are Tamil – speaking and they want the medium of instruction to be Tamil .
If the parents of Annette and Selvi were to approach respective governments to realise the desire of the child who is more likely to succeed ? And why ?
Ans . Chances of success of Annette parents are more as in Belgium the government is elected by the people belonging to one language community that is either Dutch , French or German .
On the other hand in Sri Lanka , it is the central
government which looks after education . It is very difficult for a commoner to approach the central government and make it solve their problem .
Q. 4 . Can you help poor Vikram in answering Vetal ?
( i ) ” If you had the power to rewrite the rules in Lebanon what would you do ?
Ans . Democracy is a government ” of the people by the people and for the people ” . But it doesn’t mean to make a situation that can cause disturbances and bloodshed in society . It is based on ” live and let live ” . So if there is an agreement among communities to the country on the basis of fixed power sharing among them , it is right . There is no different need to rewrite the rule .
( ii ) Would you adopt the ‘ regular ‘ rules followed everywhere , as Khalil suggests ? Or stick to the old rules ? Or do something else ?
Ans . If the rules of Lebanon is providing all the people to cast vote and contest elections as per agreement of power sharing among different communities , I would not adopt the ‘ regular ‘ rules followed everywhere , as Khalil suggests . I would stick to the rules made after agreement among different communities . I don’t need to do something else .
Q. 5. In my school , the class monitor changes every month . Is that what you call a power sharing arrangement ?
Ans . This is not power sharing arrangement as the class monitor has all the power at a time and this power is shifted to another in next month . There is no check on his / her power . The power must Jn be shared among others which is an important feature of power sharing .
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