Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. In India like many other colonies, the growth of modern nationalism is connected to the anti-colonial movement.

The First World War, Khilafat, and Non-Cooperation The 1st World War (1914-1918) created a new political and economic situation in the years after 1919. Prices increased through the war years.

 Forced recruitment in rural areas. In 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failure in many parts of India, accompanied by an influenza epidemic.

The Idea of Satyagraha It is a non-aggressive,  peaceful mass agitation against oppression and injustice. Satyagraha means insistence on truth. It is a moral force, not passive resistance.

Gandhiji organised Satyagraha Movements in Champaran, In 1917. In 1917, Satyagraha in Kheda district of Gujarat to support the peasants In 1918, satyagraha in Ahmedabad amongst cotton mill worker.

The Rowlatt Act  (1919) This act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre On 13 April 1919 A huge crowd gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh to protest against the government’s repressive measures, and some came to attend annual Baisakhi fair.

Dyer entered and blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds. After the Jallianwala Bagh massacre news spread, the strikes and attacks on govt. buildings started.

Khilafat Movement Gandhiji took up the Khilafat issue by bringing Hindus and Muslims together This was led by two brothers Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.

Why Non-cooperation? According to Gandhiji, British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. If India refused to cooperate, it would collapse in a year, and swaraj would come.