Anything that has mass and occupies space (i.e., has volume) is called matter. Everything in the universe is made up of matter. The air we breathe, the food we eat.

Particles of matter are continuously moving, that is, they possess kinetic energy.  As the temperature rises, particles move faster because of the kinetic energy of the particles increases.

Characteristics of Particles of matter :-

Characteristics of Particles of matter :-

Particles of matter have space between them When we make lemonade, particles of one type of matter get into the space of the other. This shows that there is enough space between particles of matter.

Particles of matter attract each other Try to break the stream of water with your fingers, can we do this? Particles of water/matter are held together because of the force of attraction between them.

Intermixing of particles of two different types of matter on their own is called diffusion. On heating diffusion becomes faster.

STATES OF MATTER Matter exists in 3 physical states, i.e., solid, liquid, and gas. These states of matter arise due to variations in the characteristics of the particles of matter.

THE SOLID STATE The constituent particles are very closely spaced. The intermolecular forces between the constituent particles are very strong and can simply vibrate. Ex - ice, rock

Characteristic of Solids • It have definite shape and volume • It is rigid and incompressible • It have high density • They do not flow • It is characterized by high melting and boiling points

THE LIQUID STATE The constituent particles are packed loosely. The cohesive forces, though weaker than in solid, are strong enough to keep the particles fairly close to each other. Ex - water, oil