Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states. In India like many other colonies, the growth of modern nationalism is connected to the anti-colonial movement.

The First World War,  Khilafat, and Non-Cooperation The 1st World War (1914-18) created a new political and economic situation in the years after 1919, which led to difficult life for common people.

The Idea of Satyagraha Satyagraha, It is a non-aggressive, peaceful mass agitation against oppression and injustice. Satyagraha means insistence on truth.

The Rowlatt Act (1919) This act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre On 13th April 1919, the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place in which British troops fired on a large crowd under the leadership of general dyer.

Khilafat Movement Mahatma Gandhi then took up the Khilafat issue by bringing Hindus and Muslims together... Khilafat Movement was led by two brothers Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.

Why Non-cooperation? According to Gandhiji, British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. If India refused to cooperate, it would collapse in a year, and swaraj would come.

Differing strands within the movement The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. Various social groups participated such as Rich and poor Peasants, Business Classes.

Peasant Movement in Awadh The peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra in against of talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents and a variety of other cesses.

Swaraj in the Plantations For plantation workers in Assam, freedom means moving freely and retaining a link with village from which they had come. Each group taken the term swaraj in their own ways.

Salt March Salt or Dandi March began by Gandhiji with his 78 volunteers on 12 March 1930, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to Dandi. On 6 April 1930, Gandhiji reached dandi and broke the Salt Law.

Civil disobedience movement As the movement spread the salt law was broken in different parts of the country and Foreign cloth was boycotted, peasants refused to pay revenue, forest law was violated.

Gandhi-Irwin Pact It was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin on 5 March 1931 before the Second Round Table Conference in London.

Limits of Civil Disobedience The Congress ignore the Dalits and the depressed classes in order to please the high caste Hindus. Hence the participation of the depressed classes was Limited.