Globalization is an economic system associated with the free movement of goods, technology, ideas, and people across the globe.

The Pre-Modern World The making of the global world has a long history – of trade, of migration, of people in search of work, the movement of capital, and much else.

From ancient times, travelers, traders, priests, and pilgrims traveled vast distances for knowledge, opportunity, and spiritual fulfillment, or to escape persecution.

Silk Routes It was a ex of trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. In exchange for textile and species from India, precious metals, gold, silver – flowed from Europe to Asia.

Conquest, Disease and Trade The Indian Ocean had known a bustling trade, with goods, people, knowledge, customs, etc. Entry of Europeans helped in redirecting these flows towards Europe.

The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century. Smallpox in particular proved to be a deadly killer.

Section II: The 19th Century (1815-1914) In 19th century, economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors interacted to transform societies and reshape external relations.

A World Economy Takes Shape In the 19 century, self-sufficiency in food meant lower living standards and social conflict in Britain. In 18th century, population growth increased the demand for food.

Role of Technology The railways, steamships, the telegraph were important inventions that transformed nineteenth-century world.

Late 9th-century Colonialism European conquests of Asia and Africa. Belgium and Germany became colonial powers. US became a colonial power in 1890s by taking over some colonies earlier held by Spain.

Rinderpest, or the Cattle Plague Rinderpest is a fast spreading cattle plague which hit Africa in late 1880s. Infected cattle imported from British Asia and destroyed 90 percent of the livestock.