Class 11 Geography Chapter 5 Topographical Maps
NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Geography Chapter 5 Topographical Maps, (Geography) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions withinside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Geography Chapter 5 Topographical Maps
Class 11 Geography Chapter 5 Topographical Maps
1. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
What are topographical maps?
These are also known as general purpose maps. These are drawn at relatively large scales. These maps show important natural and cultural features such as relief, vegetation, water bodies, cultivated land, settlements, and transportation networks, etc. In other words, it is a map of a small area drawn on a large scale depicting detailed surface features both natural and man made. Relief in this map is shown by contours.
Name the organisation which prepares the topographical maps of India.
Topographical maps under India and Adjacent Countries Series were prepared by the Survey of India till the coming into existence of Delhi Survey Conference in 1937. Since then the preparation of maps for the adjoining countries was abandoned and the Survey of India confined itself to prepare and publish the topographical maps for India as per the specifications laid down for the International Map Series of the World.
Which are the commonly used scales for mapping our country used by the Survey of India?
The topographical maps of India are prepared on 1 : 10,00,000, 1 : 250,000, 1:1,25,000,1:50,000 and 1:25,000 scale providing a latitudinal and longitudinal coverage of 4° x 4°, 1° x 1°, 30′ x 30′, 15′ x 15′ and 5′ x 7′ 30″, respectively.
What are contours?
Contours are imaginary lines joining places having the same elevation above mean sea level. In other words, these are imaginary lines joining all the points of equal elevation or altitude above mean sea level. They are also called “level lines”. A map showing the landform of an area by contours is called a contour map. The method of showing relief features through contour is very useful and versatile. The contour lines on a map provide a useful insight into the topography of an area.
What does the spacing of contours indicate?
Spacing in the contours represent slope.
- Closely spaced contours represent steep slopes.
- Widely spaced contours represent gentle slope.
What are conventional signs?
There are some internally determined standard symbols, signs and colours which are used to depict settlements, buildings, roads and railways are important cultural features shown on topographical sheets. When these features are exhibited through conventional signs, symbols and colours, it becomes easy to understand and interpret the map. Conventional signs and symbols are internationally accepted so that anyone can read any map anywhere in the world without knowing the language of that particular country.
2. Write short notes on-
Some basic features of contour lines are:
- A contour line is drawn to show places of equal heights.
- Contour lines and their shapes represent the height and slope or gradient of the landform.
- Closely spaced contours represent steep slopes while widely spaced contours represent gentle slope.
- When two or more contour lines merge with each other, they represent features of vertical slopes such as cliffs or waterfalls.
- Two contours of different elevation usually do not cross each other.
‘Marginal Information’ in Topographical sheets
Marginal Information: It includes the topographical sheet number, its location, grid references, its extent in degrees and minutes, scale, the districts covered, etc. In other words, it provides information related to what exactly a topographical sheet is showing. Without this marginal information, it is not possible to derive any meaning from a topographical sheet.
The Survey of India
The Survey of India prepares the topographical maps in India for the entire country. Topographical maps under India and Adjacent Countries Series were prepared by the Survey of India till the coming into existence of Delhi Survey Conference in 1937. Henceforth, the preparation of maps for the adjoining countries was abandoned and the Survey of India confined itself to prepare and publish the topographical maps for India as per the specifications laid down for the International Map Series of the World.
Question 3. Explain what is meant by ‘map interpretation’ and what procedure is followed for its interpretation.
Map interpretation involves the study of factors that explain the causal relationship among several features shown on the map. For example, the distribution of natural vegetation and cultivated land can be better understood against the background of landform and drainage. Likewise, the distribution of settlements can be examined in association with the levels of transport network system and the nature of topography.
Deriving accurate meanings from maps is called map interpretation. Knowledge of map language and sense of direction are essential in reading and interpreting topo-sheets. We must first look for the northline and the scale of the map and orient ourselves accordingly. We must have a thorough knowledge of the legends / key given in the map depicting various features. All topo-sheets contain a table showing conventional signs and symbols used in the map. We must be acquainted with conventional symbols, signs and colours.
The following procedure is followed in map interpretation:
- Finding from the index number of the topographical sheet, the location of the area in India. This would give an idea of the general characteristics of the major and minor physiographic divisions of the area.
- Find the scale of the map and the contour interval, which will give the extent and general landform of the area.
- Find the following features on tracing sheets.
- Major landforms – as shown by contours and other graphical features.
- Drainage and water features – the main river and its important tributaries.
- Land use – i.e. forest, agricultural land, wastes, sanctuary, park, school, etc.
- Settlement and Transport pattern.
- Explain the distributional pattern of each of the features separately drawing attention to the most important aspect.
- Superimpose pairs of these maps and note down the relationship, if any, between the two patterns. For example, if a contour map is superimposed over a land-use map, it provides the relationship between the degree of slope and the type of land used.
- Aerial photographs and satellite imageries of the same area and of the same scale can also be compared with the topographical map to update the information.
Question 4. If you are interpreting the cultural features from a topographical sheet, what information would you like to seek and how would you derive this information? Discuss with the help of suitable examples.
Settlements, buildings, roads and railways are important cultural features shown on topographical sheets through conventional signs, symbols and colours. The location and pattern of distribution of different features help in understanding the area shown on the map. Distribution of Settlements can be seen in the map through its site, location pattern, alignment and density.
The nature and causes of various settlement patterns may be clearly understood by comparing the settlement map with the contour map. Transport And Communication Pattern Relief, population, size and resource development pattern of an area directly influence the means of transport and communication and their density. These are depicted through conventional signs and symbols. Means of transport and communication provide useful information about the area shown on the map.
Settlements, occupation, means of communication and transportation, land use pattern are some of the cultural features which are shown on topographical sheet using conventional signs, colours and symbols. We need to collect information for all of these we may get all this information through Survey of India. The means of transportation include national or state highways, district roads, cart tracks, camel tracks, footpaths, railways, waterways, major communication lines, post offices, etc. Settlements are studied under the two heads: Rural Settlements and Urban Settlements.
The general occupation of the people of the area may be identified with the help of land use and the type of settlement. For example, in rural areas the main occupation of the majority of the people is agriculture; in tribal regions, lumbering and primitive agriculture dominates and in coastal areas, fishing is practised. Similarly, in cities and towns, services and businesses appear to be the major occupations of the people.
5. Draw the conventional signs and symbols for the following features—
- International Boundary
- Metalled Road
- Footpath with bridges
- Places of Worship
- Railway line.
Study the contour pattern and answer the following questions.
1. Name the geographical feature formed by contours.
2. Find out the contour interval in the map.
3. Find out the map distance between E and F and convert it into ground distance.
2 cm = 4 km on the ground
4. Name the type of slope between A and B; C and D and E and F.
A and B Gentle Slope
C and D Steep Slope
E and F Gentle Slope
5. find out the direction of E, D and F from G.
From G, E is in west, D is in North and F is in South directions.
Study the extract from the topographical sheet No. 63K/12. as shown in the figure below and answer the following questions.
1. Convert 1:50,000 into a statement of scale.
1 cm on map is showing 50000 cm on ground.
2. Name the major settlements of the area.
Kachhwa, Prem Ka Pura, Bhatauli, Bahraini.
3. What is the direction of flow of the river Ganga?
Direction of flow of river Ganga is from North west to south east.
4. At which one of the banks of river Ganga, Bhatauli is located?
It is located in the middle of Ganga river.
5. What is the pattern of rural settlemen ts along the right bank of river Ganga?
Compact pattern of rural settlements is seen along the right bank of river Ganga.
6. Name the villages/settlements where Post Office/Post and Telegraph Office are located?
Villages indicating PO, and PTO have post office or post and telegraph office.
7. What does the yellow colour in the area refer to?
Yellow colour in the area refers to plains.
8. What means of transportation is used to cross the river by the people of Bhatauli village ?
Boats used to cross the river by the people of Bhatauli village.
Study the extract for topographical sheet 63K/12 shown in the figure given below and answer the following questions.
1. Give the height of the highest point on the map.
2. River Janitihwa Nadi is flowing through which quarter of the map0
River Jamtihwa Nadi is flowing through south east quarter of the map.
3. Which is the major settlement located in the east of the Kuardari Nala?
Bandhwa settlement is located in the east of the Kuardari Nala.
4. What type of settlement does this area have?
Linear settlements are there in this area. ;
5. Name the geographical feature represented by white patches in the middle of Sipiu Nadi.
It is showing plains.
6. N ame the two types of vegetation shown on part of the topographical sheet.
Tropical deciduous vegetation.
7. Vdhat is the direction of the flow of the Kuardari?
It is flowing from South to North.
8. In which part of the sheet area is Lower Khajuri Dam located?
In Southern part of the sheet Lower Khajuri Dam is located.
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