NCERT Notes for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 ELECTION AND REPRESENTATION

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 ELECTION AND REPRESENTATION

NCERT Notes for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 ELECTION AND REPRESENTATION, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions with inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck with inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Notes for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.

NCERT Notes for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 ELECTION AND REPRESENTATION

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 ELECTION AND REPRESENTATION


FPTP is the electoral system of India. It is also known as:

  1. Simple Majority System (SMS) Or
  2. Relative Majority System (RMS) Or
  3. Plural System (PS)

Through these system India conducted a three important election.

  1. Panchayath election
  2. Assembly election
  3. Lok Sabha election

FPTP (First Past The Post System)

FPTP is a system of representation where a candidate who is elected in a majority is prepared as winner. It is called FPTP.

Features of Simple Majority System

  • It is easily understandable for the common people.
  • Voters can get choice based on their interest.
  • Election based on constituency.
  • To coordinate and mix different social beings.
  • Voters can know about the qualities of candidates.
  • To ensure the formation of sustainable government.


For ensuring sufficient representation to minority, there is a new electoral system formed in the name of proportional representation.

Features of Proportional Representation

  • Country may be divided into a single constituency (Israel, Netherlands or Holland).
  • Country may be divided into a multi member constituency (Argentina, Portugal).
  • Vote for political parties.
  • More than one representatives are elected from a constituency.
  • Political parties gets seat in proportion of the percentage of vote that it gets.


Classified into two:

  1. Single Transferable Vote System (STVS)
  2. List System


  • It is also known as Hare System, because it was introduced by Thomas Hare.
  • Machinery of Representation, Election of Representative are the two famous books written by Thomas Hare that explain about STVS.

Features of STVS

  • Multi-member constituency
  • Transfer of votes
  • One effective vote and marking of preference.
  • Quota system – the number of vote necessary for the candidate to win

How does proportional representation works in Rajya Sabha Election

  • In the Rajya Sabha election STVS is followed.
  • Each state have its own seat.
  • Seat determined on the basis of population of state.
  • Rajya Sabha MPs are elected by the members of legislative assembly (MLAs).
  • Every voter marks his preference
  • To get elected the candidate should get the minimum quota of votes.
  • A candidate secured minimum quota of vote


Each party prepared a list of candidate equal to the number of seat to be filled.

Why did India adopt the FPTP System

  • It is a simple electoral system without any complication
  • FPTP system is a best suitable for a large country like India.
  • FPTP system provided the voters to choice their favourable candidate.
  • FPTP system represent a particular constituency.
  • This system coordinate the different section of society.
  • FPTP provide a stable government.

The difference between FPTP and Proportional Representation


Proportional Representation

  • The state divided in to a several constituency
  • The state divided into a single or multi member constituency
  • Constituencies are small territorial area
  • Constituencies are large territorial area
  • One representative is elected from each constituency
  • Elects more than one person from a constituency
  • Vote for candidate
  • Vote for political parties
  • A party may get more seat which parties get more candidate
  • Each party gets seats proportion to their voting strength
  • The elected candidate shouldn’t get majority vote
  • The elected candidate should get majority vote
  • This system prevailed in U.K. and India
  • This system prevailed in Israel and Netherlands, Argentina, Portugal

Reservation of Constituencies

  • There should be a reservation of seat for Socially, financially, educationally backward classes.
  • Seat reserved for SC/ST
  • The candidate must belong from reserve community.
  • Reserved constituency determined under the combined action delimitation commission and election commission.
  • In Kerala there are 140 seats in assembly, 14 seats reserved for SC and 2 seats for ST.
  • In Lok Sabha there are 543 seats. Among this 79 seats reserved for SC and 41 seats for ST.

Women Representation

  • Gender discrimination and lack of education is the reason of reservation.
  • There is only 10% of women participation in the Lok Sabha and state assembly.
  • 50% seats are reserved for women in the local bodies.


  • It is the features of democracy
  • Universal adult franchise (Right to vote) is necessary.
  • Inevitable process
  • 5 year is the duration of election
  • People’s participation is essential

Universal Adult Franchise (Right to Vote)

  • Right to vote is one of the most political right of a citizen.
  • A-326 says that the election to Lok Sabha and legislative assembly should be based on adult franchise.
  • Right to vote means those who have completed at the age of 18 there should be no discrimination on the ground of religion, caste, wealth, status, etc.
  • Through the 61st constitutional amendment changed the voting age from 21 to 18. It was in 1989.

The following situation the citizen have no right to vote

  • Absence of prescribed age limit
  • Non-residing Indians
  • Criminals (illegal activity), crime related to election, corruption.
  • Mentally abnormal
  • Those who are not entered in electoral role


Qualification for candidate:

  • He should be an Indian citizen
  • He should complete at the age of 25 for Lok sabha and Assembly.
  • He or she is not gone under imprisonment for one or more years.


  • For conducting a free and fair election the constitution of India formed election commission.
  • A-324 deals with election commission of India.
  • Election commission is an independent body
  • Election commission consist of single and plural till 1989.
  • From 1993 Election commission become plural.
  • In plural commission there are 3 members:

One: Chief Election Commission (CEC)

Other 2 members are known as commissioners

  • Election commissioner was appointed by Indian President
  • Duration 65 years or 6 year service.
  • If violation of constitution arise we can remove election commission before completing their duration.
  • In each state they have their own state election commissioner.


To elect President, Vice President, parliament members (Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha) and members of state legislatures.

  • To give approval to political party.
  • The election commission provide symbols.
  • To notify the date and schedule of election
  • To supervise the machinery of election.
  • To appoint the officials for conducting election
  • To settled a dispute related to election
  • Safe custody of EVM (Electronic Voting Machine)
  • Counting the vote
  • Announcement of final result.
  • The first woman election commissioner of India – V.S. Ramadevi
  • First election commissioner – Sukumar Sen


There are many drawbacks in election process. So electoral reforms are essential. They are:

  • Election must be changed from FPTP to proportional representation.
  • Women should be given sufficient representation.
  • Money and muscle power should be controlled.
  • Caste and religious forces should not be allowed to influence election.
  • Criminals should not be allowed to contest elections.
  • Functioning of political parties should be regulated.
  • Prevention of the misuse of governmental machinery.
  • Photo identity card should be compulsory.

Proposals for Reforming the Election System

For preventing money power and muscle power

To control political parties

  • The state should bear the election expenses
  • Democratic secular values should be inculcated in political parties
  • There must be limit for election expenses. Those who spend beyond this limit should be disqualified
  • Registration must be made compulsory for political parties
  • The candidates and the parties should submit the audited account of election expenses.
  • Officer – bearers of the parties should be elected periodically
  • Criminals should not be made candidates
  • Accounts of each party should be published after proper auditing
  • All criminal activities like booth capturing should be supressed

For adequate representation of women

For reforming the election system

  • Sufficient representation should be given to women in parliament and state legislature.
  • E.C. should be a multi-member body. The number of members of commission should be increased.
  • Women should be made party office-bearers.
  • Photo identity cards should be made compulsory.
  • Steps should be taken to change the mentality to alienate women from public activities
  • Voters list should be renewed and made fool proof
  • Political parties should give priority to women candidate
  • Voting is to be made compulsory
  • General seats should be rotated

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