NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Food Security In Food
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NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Food Security In Food in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions. It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science Food Security In India so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class nine Social Science Food Security In India below and prepare in your tests easily.
NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics
Chapter 4 – Food Security in India
1. How is food security ensured in India ?
Ans . Food security is ensured in India on the basis of the two components i.e. Buffer stock and Public Distribution System ( PDS ) .
( i ) Buffer Stock It is the stock of foodgrains , namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food Cooperation of India ( FCI ) . The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production .
The purchased foodgrains are stored in granaries . This is done to distribute food grains in the deficit areas and among the poor strata of society at a price lower than market price , also known as Issue Price . This helps in resolving the problem of shortage of food .
( ii ) Public Distribution System ( PDS ) The stored food is distributed to the poor people through ration shops , also known as fair price shops . The item are sold to the poor people at a price lower than the market price .
2. Which are the people more prone to food insecurity ?
Ans . The people more prone to food insecurity are .
● The SCs , STs and some sections of the OBCs who have either very little land or very low land productivity .
● The people affected by natural disasters , who have to migrate to other areas in search of work , are also among the most food insecure people .
● Women is at a high risk of malnutrition . This is a matter of serious concern as it puts even the unborn baby at the risk .
3. Which states are more food insecure in India ?
Ans . The economically backward states in India with high incidence of poverty are more food insecure .
The states of Uttar Pradesh ( Eastern and South – Eastern parts ) , Bihar , Jharkhand , Odisha , West Bengal , Chhattisgarh , parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the large number of food insecure people in India .
4. Do you believe that Green Revolution has made India self – sufficient in foodgrains ? How ?
Ans . Yes , Green Revolution has made India self sufficient in foodgrains . Followings are the facts
( a ) Increase in Production As a result of Green Revolution production of food grains has increased . The production of wheat was just 8.8 lakh tonnes in 1955-56 . Now , it has crossed 718 lakh tonnes . The total foodgrain production was 275.68 million tonnes in 2016-17 .
( b ) Over Flowing Buffer Stocks The minimum Buffer norms for FCI are 21.4 ( 2014 ) million tonnes but due to the success of Green Revolution the stock is much more than the minimum norms .
( c ) Control over Imports Before the success of Green Revolution , India was dependent on other countries for its foodgrain requirement but now India imports of foodgrains are negligible .
5. ” A section of people in India are still without food . ” Explain .
Ans . Despite achieving self sufficiency in foodgrains , as a result of Green Revolution , a section of people in India are still without food because of poverty . In rural areas , the landless people , the traditional artisans , petty self – employed workers , destitutes and beggars are always prone to food insecurity .
In urban areas , casual labourers , workers employed in ill – paid occupations and workers engaged in seasonal activities are still with very little or no food at certain part of the year .
Although , the government has created buffer stocks , implemented the PDS and various poverty alleviation programmes , sometimes such help reaches quite late and sometimes due to inefficient and corrupt officials , a number of people are deprived of the benefits .
Also , there is poor monitoring of the schemes , resulting in some people being without food while the grains are being eaten by rats in the FCI godowns . Some grains become rotten due to weather conditions . These corruption in the PDS and extreme poverty are some of the reasons why a section of people in India are still without food .
6. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity ?
Ans . When there is a disaster or a calamity , the production of foodgrains decrease in the affected areas .
The reasons are
( i ) Due to any calamity or disaster like drought , earthquake , flood , Tsunami etc , there is widespread failure of crops . This adversily affects food production .
( ii ) Due to shortage of food , price rise up .
( iii ) Black marketing and hoarding is also one of the major factors responsible for high price rise during any calamity .
( iv ) Because of high price of food , some people cannot afford to buy food .
( v ) If the calamity happens in a very widespread area or is stretched over a longer time period , it may cause a situation of starvation .
7. Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger .
Ans . The differences between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger can be summarised as follows
8. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor ? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government .
Ans . The government has designed the food security system carefully to ensure availability of food to all sections of the society . This system is composed of two components , i.e. Buffer stock and PDS . The government has opened more than 4.6 lakh ration shops ( fair price shops ) to distribute food to the poor people at reasonable price .
Two schemes launched by government are
( i ) Antyodaya Anna Yojana ( AAY )
● AAY was launched in December 2000. Under this scheme , one crore of the poorest among the BPL families covered under the targeted PDS were identified .
● Poor families were identified by the respective state rural developments through a Below Poverty Line ( BPL ) survey .
● 25 kg of foodgrains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidised rate of ₹ 2 per kg for wheat and ₹ 3 per kg for rice .
● This quantity has been enhanced from 25 to 35 kg from April 2002 .
● The scheme has been further expanded twice by additional 50 lakh BPL families in June 2003 and in August 2004. With this increase , 2 crore families have been covered under the AAY .
( ii ) Annapurna Scheme ( APS )
● It was launched in 2000 , for poor senior citizens .
● The function of scheme was linked with existing network of the PDS .
● Under this scheme , 10 kg of foodgrains were made available to them free of cost .
9. Why is buffer stock created by the government ?
Ans . Due to the following reasons , buffer stock is created by the government
( i ) A buffer stock of foodgrains is created by the government , so that it can be distributed in food deficit areas and among the poorer strata of society at a price much lower than the market price .
( ii ) A buffer stock also helps to resolve the problem of food shortage during adverse weather conditions , a disaster or a calamity .
( iii ) Maintaining buffer stock is a step taken by the government in order to ensure food security .
10. Write notes on
( a ) Minimum Support Price ( b ) Buffer stock
( c ) Issue price ( d ) Fair price shops
Ans . ( a ) Minimum Support Price ( MSP ) It is the pre – announced price at which the government purchases foodgrains ( rice and wheat ) from the farmers in order to create a buffer stock .
The Minimum Support Price is declared by the government every year before the growing season . This provides incentives to the farmers for raising the production of the crops .
The rising Minimum Support Prices of rice and wheat have induced farmers to divert land from the production of coarse grains , the staple food of the poor , to the production of these crops . This have raised the maintenance cost of procuring foodgrains .
( b ) Buffer stock It is the stock of foodgrains ( usually wheat and rice ) procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India . The foodgrains purchased from the farmers are stored in granaries . This stock of grains is known as buffer stock .
( c ) Issue price It is the price at which government sells foodgrains to the poorer strata of the society through PDS . This price is lower than the market price .
( d ) Fair price shops The food procured by the Food Corporation of India is distributed through government – regulated ration shops which are also known as fair price shops . The prices at which food materials are sold at these shops are lower than the market prices . The low pricing is to benefit the poorer strata of society .
That is why , these shops are called fair price shops . Fair price shops keep stocks of foodgrains , sugar and kerosene oil . Any family with a ration card can buy a stipulated amount of these items every month from the nearby ration shop .
11. What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops ?
Ans . The problems in the functioning of the ration shops are
( i ) Some of the ration shop dealers adopt malpractices . They illegally divert the grains to the open market for better gains .
( ii ) Some of the ration shop dealers sell only poor quality of grains .
( iii ) Some dealers do not open their shops regularly and the poor people cannot draw their ration quota timely .
( iv ) Due to poor quality of food grains many people do not buy from the ration shops . This leads to piling up of the stock and more deterioration in the quality of food grains in these shops .
12. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items .
Ans . The cooperatives play an important role in food security in India , especially in the Southern and Western parts of the country . The following points state their role
( i ) The cooperatives societies setup shops to sell low priced goods to poor people . e.g. in Tamil Nadu , around 94 % shops are run by the cooperatives .
( ii ) Mother Dairy , in Delhi , sells milk and vegetables to the people at reasonable rate which is decided by Delhi Government .
( iii ) Amul is another success story of cooperatives in milk and milk products from Gujarat . It has brought about White Revolution in India .
( iv ) In Maharashtra , Academy of Development – Science ( ADS ) has facilitated a network of NGOs for setting up Grain Banks in different regions .
Let’s Discuss On Page 43
1. Consider the following table
Now answer the questions that follow .
( a ) Some people say that the Bengal famine happened because there was a shortage of rice . Study the table and find out whether you agree with the statement .
( b ) Which year shows a drastic decline in food availability ?
Ans . ( a ) No , I do not agree that the Bengal famine happened due to a shortage of rice . From the table , the availability was much higher than in 1941 , although lower than in 1942. However , there can be a number of other causes like improper distribution , malnutrition or disease , etc.
( b ) The year showing a drastic decline in food availability is 1941 .
Let’s Discuss On Page 45
2. Why is agriculture a seasonal activity ?
Ans . Agriculture is a seasonal activity because it has a sowing season and a harvesting season . That time is a very busy period for farmers . Most of the work is done during these periods . When the plants are growing and maturing , no significant amount of work is there .
3. Story of Ramu
Ramu works as a casual labourer in agriculture in Raipur village . His eldest son Somu who is 10 years old also works as a pali to look after the cattle of the Sarpanch of the village Satpal Singh . Somu is employed for the whole year by the Sarpanch and is paid a sum of 1,000 for this work . Ramu has three more sons and two daughters , but they are too young to work on the field . His wife Sunhari is also ( part time ) working as house cleaner for the livestock , removing and managing cow dung . She gets ½ litre milk and some cooked food along with vegetables for her daily work .
Besides she also works in the field along with her husband in the busy season and supplements his earnings . Agriculture being a seasonal activity employs Ramu only during times of sowing , transplanting and harvesting . He remains unemployed for about 4 months during the period of plant consolidation and maturing in a year . He looks for work in other activities . Sometimes , he gets employment in brick laying or in construction activities in the village .
By all his efforts , Ramu is able to earn enough either in cash or kind for him to buy essentials for two square meals for his family . However , during the days when he is unable to get some work , he and his family really face difficulties and sometimes his small kids have to sleep without food . Milk and vegetables are not a regular part of meals in the family . Ramu is food insecure during 4 months when he remains unemployed because of the seasonal nature of agriculture work .
On the basis of above story , answer the following questions .
( a ) Why is Ramu unemployed for about 4 months in a year ?
( b ) What does Ramu do when he is unemployed ?
( c ) Who are supplementing income in Ramu’s family ?
( d ) Why does Ramu face difficulty when he is unable to have work ?
( e ) When is Ramu food insecure ?
Ans . ( a ) Ramu is unemployed for 4 months in a year as he works as a casual labourer in farms . He is needed only during sowing and harvesting season , rest of the time he has no work .
( b ) When Ramu is unemployed then he looks for work in other activities . Sometimes he gets employment in brick laying or in construction activities .
( c ) Ramu’s wife Sunhari and his son Somu are supplementing the income in Ramu’s family . Somu works for the Sarpanch by looking after the cattle and is paid ₹ 1,000 for this work . Sunhari also works as house cleaner and a casual labourer during the busy season . She gets ½ litre milk and some cooked food along with vegetables for her daily work .
( d ) When Ramu is unable to get any work then he faces difficulty in getting two square meals for his family .
( e ) Ramu is food insecure during 4 months when he remains unemployed because of the seasonal nature of agricultural work .
Let’s Discuss On Page 45
4. Story of Ahmad
Ahmad is a rickshaw puller in Bengaluru . He has shifted from Jhumri Taliah along with his 3 brothers , 2 sisters and old parents . He stays in a jhuggi . The survival of all members of his family depends on his daily earnings from pulling rickshaw .
However , he does not have a secured employment and his earnings fluctuate everyday . During some days , he gets enough earning for him to save some amount after buying all his day – to – day necessities . On other days , he barely earns enough to buy his daily necessities .
However , fortunately , Ahmad has a yellow card , which is PDS Card for below poverty line people . With this card , Ahmad gets sufficient quantity of wheat , rice , sugar and kerosene oil for his daily use . He gets these essentials at half of the market price .
He purchases his monthly stock during a particular day when the ration shop is opened for below poverty people . In this way , Ahmad is able to eke out his survival with less than sufficient earnings for his big family where he is the only earning member .
On the basis of above story , answer the following questions .
( a ) Does Ahmad have a regular income from rickshaw pulling ?
( b ) How does the yellow card help Ahmad to run his family even with small earnings from rickshaw pulling ?
Ans . ( a ) Ahmad , a rickshaw puller does not have a regular income from rickshaw pulling , his earnings fluctuate everyday . Sometimes , he gets enough earning to save some amount after buying his day to day necessities . On other days , he is barely able to earn enough to survive .
( b ) Ahmad has a yellow card which is a PDS card for below poverty line people . With this card . Ahmad gets sufficient quantity of wheat , rice , sugar and kerosene oil for his daily use at rates below the market rates . In this way , Ahmad is able to survive even with less income from rickshaw pulling .
On Page 47
5. Study the graph below and answer the following questions .
Production of Foodgrains in India ( million tonnes ) .
( a ) In which year did our country cross the 200 million tonnes per year mark in foodgrain production ?
( b ) In which decade did India experience the highest decadal increase in foodgrain production ?
( c ) Is production increase consistent in India since 2000-01 ?
Ans . ( a ) In the years 2010-11 , 2011-12 , 2012-13 , 2013-14 , 2014-15 , 2015-16 and 2016-17 our country crossed the 200 million tonnes per year mark in foodgrain production .
( b ) India experienced the highest decadal increase in 2013-14 in food .
( c ) No , the increase in foodgrain production were not consistent after 2000-01 .
Let’s Discuss On Page 51
6. Study the graph given below .
( a ) In which recent year foodgrain stock with the government was maximum ?
( b ) What is the minimum buffer stock norm for the FCI ?
( c ) Why were the FCI granaries overflowing with foodgrains ?
Ans . ( a ) The foodgrain stock with the Government of India was maximum ( 65.3 tonnes ) in July 2020 .
( b ) 210.4 million tonnes is the minimum buffer stock norm for the FCI .
( c ) The FCI granaries were overflowing with foodgrains because of increased foodgrain procurement by FCI , compared to the actual requirement .
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