# NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Economics Chapter 3

## NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Poverty As A Challenge

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 Poverty As A Challenge in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions. It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science Poverty As A Challenge so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class nine Social Science Poverty As A Challenge below and prepare in your tests easily.

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics

Chapter 3 – Poverty as a Challenge

### Exercise Questions

##### Exercises

1. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India .

Ans . Poverty line is estimated by the National Sample Survey Organisation ( NSSO ) by conducting sample surveys . A person is considered below the poverty line if his / her income or consumption level falls below a ‘ minimum level ‘ necessary to fulfil basic needs . While determining the poverty line , a minimum level of food requirement , clothing , footwear , fuel , light , educational and medical requirements , etc are determined for subsistence .

Estimating the poverty line is also based on the desired calories requirement . It is 2400 calories per person per day in the rural areas and 2100 calories in the urban areas .

In terms of income , the poverty line is fixed at ₹ 816 / month for rural areas and ₹ 1000 for urban areas for the year 2010-11 . If any family has less than this fixed income , it is considered as below the poverty line .

2. Do you think that present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate ?

Ans . No , the present methodology of poverty estimation is not appropriate because it takes into account only the basic needs of food , clothing , fuel , etc. The quality of these basic necessities is the lowest quality available .

The amount which is fixed as the poverty line does not include the margin for the constant price fluctuations and price rise which is constantly occurring .

3. Describe the poverty trends in India since 1973 .

Ans . The trends in poverty since 1973 are

( i ) There is substantial decline in poverty ratio from 55 % in 1973 to 45.3 % in 1993 and 22 % in 2011-12 .

( ii ) Rural poverty has declined sharply from 56 % in 1973 to 25.7 % in 2011-12 and the numbers from 261 million to 216.5 million .

( iii ) The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the total urban and rural number of poor to be about 270.3 million , down from 321 million in 1973 .

4. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India .

Ans . The major reasons of poverty in India are

( i ) Low level of economic development under the British colonial administration The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged development of industries like textiles .

( ii ) Low rate of India’s economic growth after independence This resulted in less job opportunities and low growth rates of incomes , accompanied by a high growth rate of population hence increasing poverty .

( iii ) Lack of land resources Land reforms aimed at redistribution of assets in rural areas have not been implemented effectively .

( iv ) Backwardness in agriculture People mostly use old . traditional and subsistence methods of farming . This requires much labour and time . Effects of irrigation and the Green Revolution were limited to only some parts of India .

5. Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India .

Ans . The social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty are the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes households . The Scheduled Castes are not allowed to avail the facilities given to others due to the prevailing caste system , leading to poverty .

The economic groups vulnerable to poverty are the rural agricultural labour and the urban casual labour households . The rural agricultural labour have no land of their own and are thus , not able to earn enough to meet their daily needs , leading to poverty .

6. Give an account of inter – state disparities of poverty in India .

Ans . There is huge disparities among states regarding incidence of poverty . The following facts disclose about the inter – state disparity of poverty in India

( i ) The success rate of poverty reduction varies from state to state . Poverty is still a serious problem in some of the states such as Odisha , Bihar , Uttar Pradesh , etc.

( ii ) In 20 states and Union Territories , the poverty ratio is less than the national average . There is a significant decline of poverty in Kerala .

( iii ) Bihar and Odisha continue to be the two poorest states with poverty ratio of 33.7 % and 32.6 % , respectively . Illiteracy , social backwardness , etc are the causes .

( iv ) States like Punjab , Haryana and Himachal Pradesh have very low percentage of population living below the poverty line .

7. Describe global poverty trends .

Ans . As per data , there has been substantial reduction in global poverty . It has fallen from 36 % in 1990 to 10 % in 2015 .

Poverty declined in China and South – East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and huge investments in the development of human resources .

In Latin America and the Caribbean , the ratio of poverty remained almost the same .

In Sub – Saharan Africa , poverty saw an upward trend due to successive droughts . It rose from 51 % in 2005 to 40.2 % in 2018 .

Poverty has again resurfaced in some of the former socialist countries like Russia , where formerly it was non – existent .

8. Describe current government strategy of poverty alleviation .

Ans . The current anti – poverty strategy of the government has a two approaches i.e. promotion of economic growth and targeted anti – poverty programmes .

Economic growth widens opportunities and provide resources needed to invest in human development .

To enable the poor to take advantage of this economic growth , the government has formulated several anti – poverty schemes to affect poverty directly or indirectly . Such schemes are

Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana ( PMRY ) , Rural Employment Generation Programme ( REGP ) , Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana ( SGSY ) , Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana ( PMGY ) , Antyodaya Anna Yojana ( AAY ) , National Food for Work Programme ( NFWP ) and National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( NREGA ) are some of the anti – poverty schemes of the government .

There is also a proposal for establishing National and State Employment Guarantee Funds . However , despite the good intentions of these schemes , the benefits have not fully reached the deserving poor .

Hence , the major emphasis in recent years has been on proper implementation and monitoring of all the poverty alleviation programmes .

9. Answer the following questions briefly .

( i ) What do you understand by human poverty ?

( ii ) Who are the poorest of the poor ?

( iii ) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( NREGA ) 2005 ?

Ans . ( i ) Human poverty refers to the denial of political , social and economic opportunities to an individual to maintain a ‘ reasonable ‘ standard of living . Illiteracy , lack of job opportunities , lack of access to proper healthcare and sanitation , caste and gender discrimination , etc are all components of human poverty .

( ii ) Women , children ( especially the girl child ) and elderly people in a poor family are regarded as the poorest of the poor . In poor family they are systematically denied equal access to resources available to the family . Thus , they are considered as the poorest of the poor .

( iii ) The NREGA was introduced in September 2005 . Three features of NREGA are

( a ) It guarantees 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work . One – third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women .

( b ) The scheme will initially be started in 200 districts . Later on , the scheme will be extended to 600 districts .

( c ) If an applicant is not provided employment within a 15 days , she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance .

### Intext Questions

##### On Page 30

1. Study the given cases of poverty and discuss the following issues related to poverty .

##### Urban Case

Thirty – three years old Ram Saran works as a daily – wage labourer in a wheat flour mill near Ranchi in Jharkhand . He manages to earn around 1,500 a month when he finds employment , which is not often . The money is not enough to sustain his family of six- that includes his wife and 4 children aged between 12 years to 6 months .

He has to send money home to his old parents who live in a village near Ramgarh . His father a landless labourer , depends on Ram Saran and his brother who lives in Hazaribagh , for sustenance .

Ram Saran lives in a one – room rented house in a crowded basti in the outskirts of the city .

It’s a temporary shack built of bricks and clay tiles . His wife Santa Devi , works as a part time maid in a few houses and manages to earn another ₹ 800. They manage a meagre meal of dal and rice twice a day , but there’s never enough for all of them .

His elder son works as a helper in a tea shop to supplement the family income and earns another ₹ 300 , while his 10 – year – old daughter takes care of the younger siblings .

None of the children go to school . They have only two pairs of hand – me – down clothes each . New ones are bought only when the old clothes become unwearable . Shoes are a luxury . The younger kids are undernourished . They have no access to healthcare when they fall ill .

##### Rural Case

Lakha Singh belongs to a small village near Meerut in Uttar Pradesh . His family doesn’t own any land , so they do odd jobs for the big farmers . Work is erratic and so is income .

At times , they get paid 50 for a hard day’s work . But often it’s in kind like a few kilograms of wheat or dal or even vegetables for toiling in the farm through the day .

The family of eight cannot always manage two square meals a day . Lakha lives in a kuchha hut on the outskirts of the village . The women of the family spend the day chopping fodder and collecting firewood in the fields .

His father a TB patient , passed away 2 years ago due to lack of medication . His mother now suffers from the same disease and life is slowly ebbing away . Although , the village has a primary school .

Lakha never went there . He had to start earning when he was 10 years old . New clothes happen once in a few years . Even soap and oil are a luxury for the family .

##### Issues related to poverty

( a ) Landlessness ( b ) Unemployment

( c ) Size families ( d ) Illiteracy

( e ) Poor health / malnutrition ( f ) Child labour

( g ) Helplessness

Ans . ( a ) Landlessness Landless labourers in the villages are generally poor . They earn very low wages . They are also subject to seasonal unemployment , when they have to do odd jobs at very low income .

( b ) Unemployment In agriculture sector a person couldn’t get permanent employment for the entire year . During lean season ( lacking season ) , he becomes unemployed . Thus , couldn’t carn any income , which may lead to poverty .

( c ) Size of families When the number of persons in a family increases , the incomes of the family becomes insufficient to provide them with the essentials for proper living . This ultimately leads to poverty .

( d ) Illiteracy Due to poverty , the parents are not able to send their children to school . When these children become adults and enter the job market , they are unable to find well – paying jobs , resulting again in poverty . Thus , illiteracy and poverty depend on each other .

( e ) Poor health / malnutrition Poverty causes malnutrition and poor health , as the poor people . cannot afford adequate amounts of nutritious food or proper medical services .

( f ) Child labour Poverty forces the parents to make their children work , although there is a law against child labour . This makes the children drop out from school , resulting in their not getting well – paying jobs when they grow up .

( g ) Helplessness Due to poverty , the poor people become helpless and are willing to do any work for a low income . This leads them further into poverty .

##### Let’s Discuss On Page 32

2. Why do different countries use different poverty lines ?

Ans . The different countries use different poverty lines because

( i ) The calorie requirement of different human races is different depending on their physical condition and dietary habits . Those races which have greater height and built require higher calories .

( ii ) The per capita income in different countries is also different i.e. per capita income is higher in developed countries as compared to developing countries .

( iii ) The standard of living of Western countries is higher than that of developing countries .

( iv ) The cost of essential items used in calculating poverty line is higher in the developed countries .

##### Let’s Discuss On Page 33

3. Study the table given below and answer the following questions

( a ) Even if poverty ratio declined between 1993-94 and 2004-05 , why did the number of poor remain at about 407 million ?

( b ) Are the dynamics of poverty reduction the same in rural and urban India ?

Ans . ( a ) The poverty ratio declined between 1993-94 and 2004-05 , but the number of poor remained at about 407 million because the total population of the country is increased during the same period .

Out of this increased population , more people got employment due to the Green Revolution . establishment of more industries and growth of the tertiary sector . As a result , the poverty ratio declined .

( b ) The dynamics of poverty reduction are not the same in rural and urban areas because the conditions in both the areas are completely different .

• In urban areas , poverty has decreased due to expansion of the service sector , increased industrialisation and consequent increase of jobs . This has resulted in migration to cities and towns from rural areas .

• In rural areas , poverty has reduced due to improved agricultural practices resulting in higher incomes . Some contribution to this improvement is due to the migration to urban areas .

Let’s Discuss On Page 36

4. Study the following graph

Now answer the following on its basis .

( a ) Identify the three states where poverty ratio is the highest .

( b ) Identify the three states where poverty ratio is the lowest .

Ans . ( a ) The three states with highest poverty ratio are Bihar ( 33.7 % ) , Odisha ( 32.6 % ) and Assam ( 31.9 % ) .

( b ) The three states with lowest poverty ratio are Kerala ( 7.1 % ) , Himachal Pradesh ( 8.1 % ) and Punjab ( 8.3 % ) .

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