Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution Density And Growth
NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution Density And Growth, (Geography) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions withinside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution, Density And Growth
Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 The World Population Distribution, Density And Growth
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
Which one of the following continents has the highest growth of population?
(b) South America
(d) North America
Which one of the following is not an area of sparse population?
(a) The Atacama
(b) Equatorial region
(c) South-east Asia
(d) Polar regions
(c) South-east Asia
Which one of the following is not a push factor?
(a) Water shortage
(b) Medical/educational facilities
Which one of the following is not a fact?
(a) Human population increased more than ten times during the past 500 years.
(b) It took 100 years for the population to rise from 5 billion to 6 billion
(c) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition.
(c) Population growth is high in the first stage of demographic transition.
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
Name three geographical factors that influence the distribution of population:
- Availability of water: It is the most important factor of life. People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is readily available. Water is essential in development of agriculture and carrying out day-to-day activities.
- Land forms: People prefer to live in flat plains and gentle slopes as they are favorable for the production of crops and in building roads and industries.
- Climate: People prefer living in areas that do not have extreme climatic conditions that is areas that do not have high diurnal and annual range of temperature and also which have adequate rainfall.
- Soils: Fertile soils are important for agricultural and allied activities. Therefore, areas which have fertile loamy soils, have more people living on them as they can support intensive agriculture.
There are a number of areas with high population density in the world. Why does this happen?
The areas with high population density across the world have at least one or usually multiple factors favorable for the settlement of population. Wherever people found conducive conditions for living, they have been settling there. With passage of time and growth of population, these areas became regions of thick population density. For example, the regions with availability of water, good climate, presence of minerals and other resources, of religious or cultural significance became regions of thick population. Example: Ganga-Yamuna Doab, Mediterranean regions.
What are the three components of population change?
The three components of population change are:
- Crude Birth Rate (CBR): It is expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of population in a particular region.
- Crude Death Rate (CDR): It is the number of deaths in a place per thousand of population in a particular region. CBR and CDR are natural factors of population growth. They result in natural population growth, which is equal to the difference between CBR and CDR.
- Migration: It is the induced factor in population growth. It is the number of people moving in and out of a place due to various social, economic and political reasons. It is taken into account while calculating actual growth of population.
3. Distinguish between:
Distinguish between Birth rate and Death rate:
It is the number of live births per thousand of population during a year for a particular region
It is the number of deaths per thousand of population during a year for a particular region
It is calculated using the following formula:
It is calculated using the following
If birth rate is more than death rate, it results in positive growth of population.
If death rate is more than birth rate it results in negative growth of population.
Distinguish between Push factors and pull factors of migration:
These factors are the ones which makes a place less attractive for human settlement.
These factors are the ones which makes a place an attractive destination for settlement.
These factors forces people to move out- hence face emigration.
These factors force inflow of people – hence face immigration.
Examples: Unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
Examples: Better job opportunities, better living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.
4. Answer the following questions in about 150 words:
Discuss the factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world.
The factors influencing the distribution and density of population in the world may be classified into three broad categories, which may again be sub divided into minor factors. They are enumerated below:
- Availability of water: It is the most important factor of life. People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is readily available. Water is essential for development of agriculture and carrying out day to day activities.
- Land forms: People prefer to live in flat plains and gentle slopes as they are favorable for the production of crops and in building roads and industries. The mountainous and uneven terrain offers obstacles in infrastructure development activities that hamper human development hence are less populated. Eg. Himalayan region’s in India.
- Climate: People prefer living in areas that do not have extreme climatic conditions that is areas that do not have high diurnal and annual range of temperature and also which have adequate rainfall. Eg. Mediterranean regions.
- Soils: Fertile soils are important for agricultural and allied activities. Therefore areas which have fertile loamy soils, have more people living on them as these can support intensive agriculture. Eg. Northern plains.
- Minerals: Areas rich in minerals attract industries. Mining and allied activities generate employment. Skilled and semi skilled workers move to these areas and make them densely populated. Eg. Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa.
- Industrialization: Industrial belts provide job opportunities and attract large numbers of people. These include not only factory workers but also transport operators, shopkeepers, doctors and other professionals.
- Example; The Kobe- Osaka industrial region of Japan.
- Urbanization: Better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, better means of transport and communication attract people to cities. It leads to rural-urban migration and hence cities grow in size. Eg. a large number of people move to cities like .Delhi, Mumbai, etc. and hence make them densely populated.
- Social and cultural factors: Some places attract more people because they have religious or cultural significance. In the same way, people tend to move away from places where there is social and political unrest. Example; emigration of people from civil war affected areas of Africa. Many a times government offers incentives to people to live in sparsely populated areas. Example; Indira Gandhi canal colonies.
Discuss the three stages of demographic transition.
Demographic transition theory can be used to describe and predict the future population of any area. The theory tells us that the population of any region changes from high births and high deaths to low births and low deaths as a society progresses from rural, agrarian and illiterate to urban, industrial and literate society. These changes occur in stages, which are collectively known as the demographic cycle.
The first stage has high fertility and high mortality rates because people reproduce more to compensate for the deaths due to epidemics and variable food supply. Population growth is slow and most people are engaged in agriculture where large families are an asset. Life expectancy is low; people are mostly illiterate and have low levels of technology. Two hundred years ago all the countries were in this stage.
In the second stage, fertility remains high in the beginning, but it declines with time. This is accompanied by reduced mortality rate. Improvements in sanitation and health conditions lead to decline in mortality. Because of this gap the net addition to population is high. This results in population explosion. Eg. Countries like India.
In the last stage, both fertility and mortality decline considerably. The population is either stable or grows slowly. The population becomes urbanized, literate and has high technical know how and deliberately controls the family size. Some countries even face negative growth of population, E.g., many Western European countries.
On an outline map of the world name the following:
(i) Countries of Europe and Asia with negative growth rate of population.
(ii) African countries with growth rate of population more than three per cent.(you may refer to Appendix 1).
Europe: Estonia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria etc. Asia : Japan, Armenia, etc.
Angola, Niger, Guinea, etc.