Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom
NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 the Plant Kingdom
Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 the Plant Kingdom
1. What is the basis of classification of algae?
The presence of pigments that give the traditional color on algae is the main basis for the classification of algae.
Name of the pigment
Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, fuxoxanthin
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll d, phycoerythrin
Now, algae are classified on different criteria such as:
(ii) Storage products
(iii) Cellular organization
(iv) Constitution of cell walls
2. When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm?
The reduction division takes place in the following stages:
(i) Liverworts – meiosis takes place in the spore mother cells of the capsule in sporangium resulting in haploid spore formation
(ii) Moss – meiosis occurs in spore mother cells of spore sacs in the capsule of sporangium.
(iii) Fern – sporangia are endured on sporophylls (fertile leaves). The process of meiosis occurs in spore mother cells of sporangium for the formation of haploid spores.
(iv) Gymnosperm – meiosis occurs in microsporangia located in the microsporophylls, in the microspore mother cells for the formation of haploid pollen grains giving rise to male gametophyte
(iv) Angiosperm – pollen grains that are formed in microspore mother cells leads to the formation of male gametophyte in the anther of the stamen. The megaspore mother cell located in the nucleus of the ovule undergoes meiosis for the formation of haploid megaspore, which eventually forms the female gametophyte.
3. Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them.
Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, and Gymnosperms are the plants that bear archegonia.
The life cycle of Bryophytes
(i) Bryophytes are haploid, and they produce gametes. The sexual organs in bryophytes are multicellular.
(ii) The male sex organ is the antheridium, which produces biflagellate anterozoids. Female sexual organs are called archegonium, which produces a single egg.
(iii) Antheridium releases anthrozoids into the water that come into contact with the archegonium.
(iv) An antherozoid fuses with the egg to produce the zygote.
(v) The zygote undergoes reduction division to produce a multicellular body called a sporophyte.
(vi) Saprophytes undergo reduction division to produce haploid spores.
(vii) These spores germinate to produce gametophyte.
4. Mention the ploidy of the following:
protonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a fern; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of a liverwort, and zygote of a fern.
Type of Ploidy
Protonemal cell of a moss
Primary endosperm nucleus in dicot
leaf cell of a moss
Prothallus cell of a fern
Gemma cell in Marchantia
Meristem cell of monocot
Ovum of a liverwort
Zygote of a fern.
5. Write a note on economic importance of algae and gymnosperms.
Importance of Gymnosperms
(i) Gymnosperms plants are used as ornamentals. Some are features in formal gardens – used for bonsai
(ii) Their fibers are used in the preparation of paper pulp.
(iii) Turpentine and resins are obtained from confers resin
(iv) Useful oils are extracted from gymnosperms like junipers, pines, hemlock, fir, spruces, and arborvitae.
(v) Gymnosperm seeds are used as food products such as bakery items.
(vi) Occassionaly used to create silk and other textiles
Importance of Algae
(i) Algae fixes Carbon dioxide with the help of photosynthesis
(ii) It increases the level of dissolved oxygen in their immediate environment
(iii) They produce rich compounds that serve as food for aquatic animals.
(iv) Marine algae are used as food. Eg: Laminaria and Sargassum
(v) Certain algae are used as hydrocolloids
(vi) Agar is used in growing microorganisms and in the preparation of jellies.
(vii) Chlorella is used as food by space travelers.
6. Both gymnosperms and angiosperms bear seeds, then why are they classified separately?
The reasons for distinguishing angiosperms and gymnosperms are as follows.
(i) In gymnosperms, the ovules are naked but in angiosperms they are enclosed within the ovary
(ii) In Gymnosperms endospore is haploid and produced before fertilization whereas in Angiosperms endosperm is triploid and formed after double fertilization.
(iii) Double fertilization does not occur in gymnosperms, but in angiosperms, double fertilization occurs.
(iv) In gymnosperms, wood is nonporous and in angiosperms wood is porous.
7. What is heterospory? Briefly comment on its significance. Give two examples
The phenomenon of producing two different types of spores in the same plant is called heterosporis. The importance of heterospory:
(i) Heterosporis causes the growth of seeds in gymnosperms and angiosperms.
(ii) It is required in the differentiation of male and female gametophytes.
Examples: Salvinia, Selaginella
8. Explain briefly the following terms with suitable examples:-
i) Protonema is the haploid stage in the bryophyte lifecycle where thread-like chain of cells are formed Ex: In mosses protonema develops directly from a spore.
ii) Antheridium – The male sex organ, producing male gametes in bryophyte and pteridophytes is called antheridium. Ex: many fungi and algae have antheridia during their reproductive phases.
iii) Archegonium is a female reproductive organ of bryophytes which is flask-shaped and produces a single egg. Observed in pteridiophytes, gymnosperms, bryophytes, they are jacketed and multicellular, possessing a neck and a swollen venter.
iv) Diplontic – Life cycle in which dominant free living phase is diploid, generating haploid gametes. Ex: Sargassum
v) A leaf which bears sporangia is called as sporophyll, which may be microsporophyll or megasporophyll. These structures combine to form strobini(cones) Ex: Pinus
vi) Isogamy – Sexual reproduction that takes place through fusion of two gametes which can be flagellated and are similar in size or non-flagellated (non-motile) but similar in size. Such reproduction is called isogamy. Ex: Ectocarpus
9. Differentiate between the following:-
(i) red algae and brown algae
(ii) liverworts and moss
(iii) homosporous and heterosporous pteridophyte
(iv) syngamy and triple fusion
Following are the differences:
1. Red algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll d but brown algae contain chlorophyll a and c.
2. In red algae, Phycobilins are present but brown algae do not have phycobilins.
3. If red algae reserve food in the form of floridian starch, it is laminarin in brown algae.
4. Red algae are not flagellated, and brown algae are flagellated.
1. There is no protonema phase in the liverworts and the life cycle in the moss begins with the protonema
2. If the plant body is dorsoventral in liverworts, the algal plant body is separated into a stem-axis.
iii) Homosporous possesses only one type of spores whereas heterosporous will have morphologically different spores in different sporangia.
iv) Syngamy is the fusion of the male gamete with the ovum whereas triple fusion is the fusion of another male gamete with two polar nuclei.
10. How would you distinguish monocots from dicots?
Have single cotyledon seed
Seeds having two cotyledons
Flowers are trimerous
Flowers are tetramerous or pentamerous
Venation in leaves is parallel.
Have reticulate venations in leaves
Vascular bundle is scattered
Vascular bundle are organized in a ring
Absence of vascular cambium
Presence of vascular cambium
Primary root replaced by adventitious roots and are short-lived
Primary roots occur in a few cases. Primary root is long-lived
11. Match the following (column I with column II)
12. Describe the important characteristics of gymnosperms.
The main characteristics of gymnosperms are as follows
(i) In Gymnosperm the ovules are not enclosed by ovary. They are exposed before and after fertilization.
(ii) The seeds are naked
(iii) Gymnosperms include medium sized trees or tall trees and shrubs.
(iv) The roots are taproots
(v) The stems are branched or unbranched.
(vi) Leaves simple and compound
(vii) The plant body is separated into roots, stems and leaves and is sporophyte
(viii) They produce two kinds of spores, so they are called heterosporous
(ix) Fertilization takes place in the absence of external water from syphonogamy.
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