# NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development

## Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development, in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions.

It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class ten Social Science Development so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Solutions for Class ten Social Science Development below and prepare in your tests easily.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development

Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development

### Exercise Questions

Q. 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by :

( a ) Its per capita income

( b ) Its average literacy levels

( c ) Health status of its people

( d ) All of these [ Page 16 ]

Ans . ( a ) Its per capita income .

Q. 2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India ?

( b ) Sri Lanka

( c ) Nepal

( d ) Pakistan [ Page 16 ]

Ans . ( b ) Sri Lanka

Q. 3. Assume there are four families in a country . The average per capita income of these families is 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000 , ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively . What is the income of the fourth family ?

( a ) ₹ 7500

( b ) ₹ 3000

( c ) ₹ 2000

( d ) ₹ 6000

Ans . ( d ) 6000

Q. 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries ? What are the limitations of this criterion , if any ? ( Page 16 )

Ans . Per capita Income .

Limitations of per capita income :

( i ) It is only an average . It fails to show how income is distributed among the people of the country .

( ii ) Cost of population is not considered in this average .

( iii ) Some other important aspects like infant mortality rate , literacy rate , net attendance ratio , availability of basic facilities etc. are not considered while calculating per capita income .

( iv ) It hides disparities .

Q. 5. In what respect is the criterion used by UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank ? [ Page 16 ]

Ans . For measuring development , UNDP uses MDI .

It includes educational level of the people , their health status and per capita income whereas World Bank uses per capita income only for measuring development .

Q. 6. Why do we use averages ? Are there any limitations to their use ? Illustrate with your own example related to development . [ Page 16 ]

Ans . Since , countries have different populations , comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn . Are people in one country better off than others in a different company ? To answer this question we use averages .

Average income is a useful method for comparison but it has certain limitations which are as follows :

( i ) Average income does not tell us how the income is distributed among the people i.e. , whether the distribution is equitable or not , it is not clear from per capita income .

( ii ) An average is influenced by extreme values .

( iii ) An average may not give an idea about the formation of the series .

Thus , average hides disparities . Averages are affected by the numerical value only . Other factor like character of a person , living quality etc. are not considered which are also important for making comparison .

Q.7. Kerala , with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab . Hence , per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states . Do you agree ? Discuss . [ Page 16 ]

Ans . Per capita income is an important criterion because more income means more of all things that human being need but it is an inadequate measure of the level of development . There are some other factors also which are important like basic health , education and other facilities . Money in our pocket cannot buy all the goods and services that we may need to live well . It cannot buy us a pollution free environment .

Apart from this , per capita income is an important criterion for making comparison .

Q. 8. Find out present sources of energy used by people in India . What could be possibilities fifty years from now ?

Ans . There are two types of energy used by people in India . These are :

Conventional Sources of Energy : Those sources which are known to us and which are popularly in use since a very long time . These are goal , petroleum , natural gas and electricity .

Non – conventional Sources of Energy : These are sources which have been discovered only in the recent past . These are solar energy , wind energy , biomass energy , geothermal energy .

Exploitation of coal reserves and the use of coal as an energy for production purpose is mounting to alarming proportions . It is feared that , if demand for coal continues to rise at the expected rate , the coal supplies of the country may not last longer than 125 years and with the current rate of production and consumption of crude and natural gas , it is not beyond 25 years that we shall exhaust all our stocks . In this situation it is necessary that we extract new sources of energy and shifts our demand from conventional to non – conventional resources of energy .

Q.9 . Why is the issue of sustainability important for development ? ( page 16 )

Ans . The process of economic growth in almost all developed and under developed countries has been at the cost of natural resources and environment . Economic development may cause excessive exploitation of natural resources .

Diverse crops may be grown on land causing fall in its productivity . Excessive mining of mineral and precious metal or stones may lead to gradual depletion of their stock . Smoke and other injurious emissions from factories and transport vehicle often lead to pollution of environment . Quality of life of present and future generations may be adversely affected due to increasing pollution . In such a situation , prosperity of present generations may be at the cost of prosperity of the future generation . Both the loss of resource base and environmental degradation is forcing us to consider the need of sustainable development .

Q. 10. ” The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person . ” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development ? Discuss . [ Page 17 ]

Ans . Our earth has enough non – renewable resources to meet our needs which includes present needs and also future needs , if we use them in an economic manner . But the way by which we are using our resources at present , the day is not far off when our world will soon turn into a vast wasteland .

Under developed countries use fossil fuel , minerals and timber as source of industrial energy in a large quantity . They are depleting these natural resources and degrading natural ecosystem . The present production technology pollutes atmosphere and water bodies with garbage , litter , smoke and other poisonous gases . Our wasteful consumption styles of resources also makes the problem serious .

If we continue the same consumption patter then our resources will get exhausted in the long run and it will reduce the production capacity of future generation .

Q. 11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you .

Ans . Examples of environmental degradation are :

( a ) Industrial wastes are often channelized into rivers and canals causing water pollution . The consequences of this are – spread of water borne disease , implying damage to human and aquatic life .

( b ) Increasing noise due to excessive mechanization is a great irritant and it erodes the quality of life .

( c ) Greater emission of smoke due to excessive use of energy like coal , kerosene oil etc , causes serious damage to public health .

( d ) The forests change into factories , residential and commercial buildings bring environmental degradation by producing more heat , noise and pollution .

Q. 12. For each of the items given in the table , find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom .

Ans .

Q.13 . The following table shows the proportion of adults ( 15-49 years ) whose BMI is below normal ( BMI < 18.5 kg / m² ) in India . It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015-16 . Look at the table and answer the following the questions .

( i ) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh .

( ii ) Can you guess why around one fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country ? Describe in your own words . ( page 17 )

Ans . ( i ) Kerala has less undernourished compared to Madhya Pradesh . people as

( ii ) ( a ) There is a lack of educational and health . facilities in many parts of our country , so many people remain poor and under nourished and good quality food is not consumed by them .

( b ) In most number of states , Public Distribution System is not functioning well and people do not get food at cheap rate and hence they under nourished .

### Intext Questions

Q.1 . Complete the following table .

Development Goals of Different Categories of Persons

 Category of Person Developmental Goals / Aspirations Landless rural labourers More days of work and better wages ; local school is able to provide quality education for their children ; there is no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village . Prosperous farmers from Punjab Assured a high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hardworking and cheap labourers , they should be able to settle their children abroad . Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops A rural woman from a land owning family Urban unemployed youth A boy from a rich urban family A girl from a rich urban family She gets as much freedom as her brother and is able to decide what she wants to do in life . She is able to pursue her studies abroad . An adivasi from Narmada valley

Ans .

Q.2 . Why do different persons have different notions of development ? Which of the following explanations is more important and why ?

( a ) Because people are different

( b ) Because life situations of persons are different . [ Let’s work these out . Page 06 ]

Ans . Different persons have different notions of development because life situations of persons are different . As their life situations are different , their aspirations and desires are also different . Due to differences in the aspirations , their development goals are different .

Q. 3 . Do the following two statements mean the same ?

( a ) People have different development goals .

( b ) People have conflicting developmental goals , [ Let’s work these out , page 06 ]

Ans . Yes , these two statements are almost same , as different people could have different as well as conflicting development goals .

E.g. , to get more electricity , industrialist may want many dams but this may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced .

Q . 4. Give some examples where factors others than income are important aspects of our lives . [ Let’s work these out , Page 06 ]

Ans . For the people income is an important aspect of their lives but income alone is not enough ; other things are equally important , for example ; equal treatment , liberty , security and respect of others .

A person prefers a job which gives less pay but high job security instead of a job which offers high pay but no job security .

Similarly a person accepts that job offer which gives some extra facilities apart from income like free housing facilities working atmosphere and other facilities from his family .

A safe and secured environment may allow more women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business .

Q . 5. Explain some of the important ideas of the above section ( income and other goals ) in your own words . [ NCERT Book , Page 05 ] [ Let’s work these out , Page 06 ]

Ans . This section is based on the income and goals of the people . Here , it is being explained that income is not the sole indicator of development whereas many other factors like equal treatment , liberty , education and security etc , are also important . Different people have different goals but some goals are common to all like health education , security etc.

Q. 6. Look at the pictures below . What should be the developmental goals of such an area . [ Let’s work these out , Page 07 ]

Ans . The developmental goals for such an area should be as follows :

( i ) Pucca houses should be built for slum – dwellers .

( ii ) Water supply and sanitation facilities should be provided for them .

( iii ) Quality education should be provided for their children .

( iv ) There should be no social discrimination .

A vessel dumped 500 tonnes of liquid toxic wastes into open – air dumps in a city and in the surrounding sea . This happened in a city called Abidjan in Ivory coast , a country in Africa . The fumes from the highly toxic waste caused nausea , skin rashes , fainting , diarrhoea etc. After a month seven persons were dead , twenty were admitted in hospital and 26 thousand were treated for symptoms of poisoning .

A multinational company dealing in petroleum and metals had contracted a local company of the Ivory Coast to dispose the toxic waste from its ship . [ Let’s work these out , Page 07 ]

( i ) Who are the people who benefitted and who did not ?

Ans . The local company owner and the multinational company benefitted while the people of Abidjan in Ivory Coast suffered a lot from this .

( ii ) What should be the development goal for this country ?

Ans . The development goal for this country should be proper system of disposal for industrial waste and ensuring better health facilities and health care system for all .

Q. 8. What can be some of the developmental goals for your village , town or locality ? [ Let’s work these out , page 07 ]

Ans . Some of the developmental goals for my locality should be as follows :

( i ) Local school should be able to provide quality education for the children .

( ii ) Proper health facilities should be provided through local hospitals .

( iii ) Quality public facilities should be provided like good roads , proper sewage system , street lighting facilities etc.

( iv ) No discrimination between the people on the basis of caste , gender or income levels .

( v ) Employment opportunities should be created .

Q.9 . Give three examples where an average is used for comparing situations . [ Let’s work these out , page 09 ]

Ans . 1. All round progress of children in the class .

2. For comparing the countries having different population .

3. Progress of different production firms of an industry .

4. To compare the performance of cricket player .

Q.10 . Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development ? Explain . [ Let’s work these out , page 09 ]

Ans . Economic growth in terms of increase in the level of output becomes illusionary , if population of a country tends to grow at a pace close to the growth rate of output . If growth rate of population continues to offset the growth rate of output , per capita availability of goods and services may not increase over time . In other words , even when national income tends to increase over time , per capita income may not increase in a situation when population tends to constantly grow over time . But if per capita income increases , then national income also increases , whatever be the population level . Thus , average income is an important criterion for development .

Q. 11. Besides the size of per capita income , what other properties of income is important in comparing two or more societies ? [ Let’s work these out , page 09 ]

Ans . Distribution of income in the society , cost of living , cost of income in terms of population , sectoral contribution in total income etc. are the other properties of income which are important in comparing two or more societies .

Q.12 . Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time . From this , can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better ? Illustrate your answer with an example . [ Let’s work these out , page 09 ]

Ans . From this , we cannot conclude that all sections of the economy have become better because it is only an average . It is unable to show how the income is distributed among the people . For e.g. , in the first year the income of 5 citizens are ₹ 9500 , ₹ 10500 , ₹ 9800 , ₹ 10000 and ₹ 10200 and per capita income is ₹ 10000. In the next year the income of these five citizens are ₹ 9500 , ₹ 10600 , ₹ 10000 , ₹ 10400 , ₹ 71500 and per capita income is ₹ 22400 .

From the above we come to know that per capita income becomes more than double in the second year but the distribution of income in the second year is not equitable . Most citizens are poor and one person is extremely rich .

Q. 13. From the text , ( How to compare different countries or states , Page 9 ) find out the per capita income level of low – income countries as per world development reports . [ Let’s work these out , page 09 ]

Ans . As per the world Development Reports published . by world bank , countries with per capita income of US \$ 1,955 or less in 2017 are called low – income countries .

Q. 14. Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do , or achieve to become a developed country ? [ Let’s work these out , page 09 ]

Ans . The fallowing things should be done :

( i ) Modern ways of agriculture should be developed .

( ii ) Industrialization should be enhanced at large scale .

( iii ) More jobs should be generated in tertiary sector .

( iv ) Cottage industries should also be developed .

( v ) Health and education sectors should be well developed and more quality is required for these sectors .

Q. 15. Look at data in Tables 1.3 and 1.4 . Is Haryana ahead of Kerala in literacy rate etc. , as it is in terms of Per Capita Income ?

Table 1.3 Per Capita Income of select states

Ans . In terms of literacy rate , infant mortality rate and net attendance ratio , Haryana is not ahead of Kerala but in terms of Per Capita Income , it is just the opposite , i.e. , Haryana leads . It is clearly indicating that Per Capita Income is not the sole indicator to judge the development of a nation . Other factors are equally important .

Q. 16. Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and service is cheaper than individual provision . [ Let’s work these out , page 12 ]

Ans . Following are some of the examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision :

( i ) Hospital : Public hospital will certainly be cheaper and better in comparison to all medical facilities . and a doctor at home .

( ii ) Electricity : Electricity from State Electricity Board is cheaper than having a generator in the house .

( iii ) Education : Education from government school is better and cheaper than taking private tuitions at home .

Same is the case with transportation , police and road services .

Q. 17. Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities ? What other factors could be relevant . Let’s work these out , page 12 ]

Ans . No. It is true that availability of good health and educational facilities depends on the amount spent by the government on it , but it is not the only factor . There are some other factors also which affect these facilities . These are :

( a ) Government devotion towards these facilities .

( b ) Private participation in these awareness .

( c ) Awareness among the people about health and education .

Q. 18. In Tamil Nadu , 90 per cent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop , whereas in West Bengal only 35 percent of rural people do so . Where would people be better off and why ? [ Let’s work these out , page 12 ]

Ans . The people of Tamil Nadu would be better off as 90 percent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop and able to get food grains , sugar , kerosene oil etc. from the ration shop at a price lower than the market price . Ration shops play an effective role in stabilizing the prices and making necessary goods available to poor consumers at affordable price .

Q. 19. Study the table carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs . For this , you may need to make calculations based on the table .

( a ) The literacy rate for all age groups , including young and old , is ­­­­­­­____ for rural males and ______ for rural females . However , it is not just that these many adults could not attend schools but that there are ___ who are currently not in school .

( b ) It is clear from the table that _______ of rural girls and ____ of rural boys are not attending schools . Therefore , illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as ______ for rural females and ________ for rural males .

( c ) This high level of illiteracy among _____ age group , even after more than 60 years of our independence , is most disturbing . In many other states also , we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 , which was expected to be achieved by 1960 . [ Activity 2 , page 12 ]

Ans . ( a ) 76 % , 54 % , 15 % males and 18 % females

( b ) 15 % , 18 % , 13 % , 10 %

( c ) 10-14 ,

Ans . In terms of literacy rate , infant mortality rate and net attendance ratio , Haryana is not ahead of Kerala but in terms of Per Capita Income , it is just the opposite , i.e. , Haryana leads . It is clearly indicating that Per Capita Income is not the sole indicator to judge the development of a nation . Other factors are equally important .

Q. 16. Think of other examples where collective provision of goods and service is cheaper than individual provision . [ Let’s work these out , page 12 ]

Ans . Following are some of the examples where collective provision of goods and services is cheaper than individual provision :

( i ) Hospital : Public hospital will certainly be cheaper and better in comparison to all medical facilities . and a doctor at home .

( ii ) Electricity : Electricity from State Electricity Board is cheaper than having a generator in the house .

( iii ) Education : Education from government school is better and cheaper than taking private tuitions at home .

Same is the case with transportation , police and road services .

Q. 17. Does availability of good health and educational facilities depend only on amount of money spent by the government on these facilities ? What other factors could be relevant . Let’s work these out , page 12 ]

Ans . No. It is true that availability of good health and educational facilities depends on the amount spent by the government on it , but it is not the only factor . There are some other factors also which affect these facilities . These are :

( a ) Government devotion towards these facilities .

( b ) Private participation in these awareness .

( c ) Awareness among the people about health and education .

Q. 18. In Tamil Nadu , 90 per cent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop , whereas in West Bengal only 35 percent of rural people do so . Where would people be better off and why ? [ Let’s work these out , page 12 ]

Ans . The people of Tamil Nadu would be better off as 90 percent of the people living in rural areas use a ration shop and able to get food grains , sugar , kerosene oil etc. from the ration shop at a price lower than the market price . Ration shops play an effective role in stabilizing the prices and making necessary goods available to poor consumers at affordable price .

Q. 19. Study the table carefully and fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs . For this , you may need to make calculations based on the table .

( a ) The literacy rate for all age groups , including young and old , is ­­­­­­­____ for rural males and ______ for rural females . However , it is not just that these many adults could not attend schools but that there are ___ who are currently not in school .

( b ) It is clear from the table that _______ of rural girls and ____ of rural boys are not attending schools . Therefore , illiteracy among children in the age group 10-14 is as high as ______ for rural females and ________ for rural males .

( c ) This high level of illiteracy among _____ age group , even after more than 60 years of our independence , is most disturbing . In many other states also , we are nowhere near realisation of the constitutional goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 , which was expected to be achieved by 1960 . [ Activity 2 , page 12 ]

Ans . ( a ) 76 % , 54 % , 15 % males and 18 % females

( b ) 15 % , 18 % , 13 % , 10 %

( c ) 10-14 ,