Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
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NCERT Notes for Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society
In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India.
IMAGES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Industrial society refers to a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Social features of industry (Thinkers like Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim)
loss of face-to-face relationships
- Anonymous professional relationships only
detailed division of labour
- Producing only one small part of a product
- work is often repetitive and exhausting
- Alienation (Marx)
- Less enjoyment in work, they have do only for survive.
Industrialisation leads to greater equality
- Caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes.
- Social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality is growing in the world.
- Often social inequality and income inequality overlap
- by the mid 20th century, under the influence of modernisation theory, industrialisation came to be seen as inevitable and positive.
- Modernisation theory argues that societies are at different stages on the road to modernisation.
- Moder n society, is represented by the West.
INDUSTRIALISATION IN INDIA
- The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western model and in many ways different.
What kind of work people are doing??
- In developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by industry.
In India, in 1999-2000
- 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and mining),
- 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities), and
- 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.)
Number of people in regular salaried Employment ??.
- In developed countries, the majority are formally employed.
- over 50% of the population is self-employed
- 14% are in regular salaried employment,
- 30% are in casual labour
- In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector.
What are the Social implications of this small size of the organised sector?
- Most Indians is still in small scale workplaces o This is different from a Large organisation well-defined rules, recruitment is more transparent there are mechanisms for complaints
Very few Indians have access to secure jobs with benefits.
- Two-thirds work for the government.
Very few people are members of unions
- They do not have the experience of collectively fighting for proper wages and safe working conditions.
INDUSTRIALISATION IN THE EARLY YEARS OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
- The first modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways.
- In India’s mixed economy policy, some sectors were reserved for government, while others were open to the private sector.
- The government tried to ensure, through its licensing policy, that industries were spread over different regions.
- Before independence, industries were located mainly in the port cities like Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
- But since then, we see that places like Baroda, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Pune, Faridabad and Rajkot have become important industrial centers.
- The government also tried to encourage the small-scale sector through special incentives and assistance.
- paper and wood products,
- glass and ceramics
- In 1991, large-scale industry employed only 28% of the total workforce engaged in manufacture, while the small-scale and traditional industry employed 72%
GLOBALISATION, LIBERALISATION AND CHANGES IN INDIAN INDUSTRY
- Since the 1990s, however, the government has followed a policy of liberalisation.
- Private companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power etc.
- Licenses are no longer required to open industries.
As a result of liberalisation,
- Many Indian companies have been bought over by multinationals.
- At the same time some Indian companies are becoming multinational companies.
- The government is trying to sell its share in several public sector companies, a process which is known as disinvestment.
- More and more companies are reducing the number of permanent employees and outsourcing their work to smaller companies or even to homes.
- For multinational companies, this outsourcing is done across the globe,
- Developing countries like India providing cheap labour. Because small companies have to compete for orders from the big companies,
- o they keep wages low, and
- o working conditions are often poor.
- It is more difficult for trade unions to organise in smaller firms.
- India is still largely an agricultural country.
- The service sector – shops, banks, the IT industry, hotels and other services are employing more people
- urban middle class is growing,
- A very few people in India have access to secure jobs,
- small number in regular salaried employment becoming more insecure due to the rise in contract labour.
- Employment by the government was a major avenue for increasing the well-being of the population, but now even that is coming down.
- secure employment in large industry is declining
HOW PEOPLE FIND JOBS
- Only a small percentage of people get jobs through advertisements or through the employment exchange.
- People who are self– employed like
- electricians and carpenters
- teachers who give private tuitions,
- free-lance photographers – all rely on personal contacts.
- Job recruitment as a factory worker takes a different pattern.
- In the past, many workers got their jobs through contractors or jobbers. – mistris
- Nowadays, the importance of the jobber has come down, and both management and unions play a role in recruiting their own people.
- Many factories employ badli workers who substitute for regular permanent workers who are on leave.
- Many of these badli workers have actually worked for many years for the same company
- But are not given the same status and security.
- This is what is called contract work in the organised sector.
How is work carried out?
Two main ways of making workers produce more.
- To extend the working hours.
- To increase the amount that is produced within a given time period.
- Machinery helps to increase production,
- But it also creates the danger that eventually machines will replace workers.
- Both Marx and Mahatma Gandhi saw mechanisation as a danger to employment.
‘Scientific Management’ or Taylorism or industrial engineering.
- Another way of increasing output is by organising work.
- By Frederick Winslow Taylor (American)
- invented a new system in the 1890s,
- Under his system, all work was broken down into its smallest repetitive elements, and divided between workers.
- Workers were timed with the help of stopwatchesand had to fulfill a certain target every day.
- Production was further speeded up by the introduction of the assembly line.
- Each worker sat along a conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product.
- The speed of work could be set by adjusting the speed of the conveyor belt.
‘Time Slavery’ in the IT Sector
- 10-12 hours is an average workday, and it is not uncommon for employees to stay overnight in the office (known as a ‘night out’), when faced with a project deadline.
- ‘flexi-time’, which in theory gives the employee freedom to choose his or her working hours (within limits) but which in practice means that they have to work as long as necessary to finish the task at hand.
- ‘knowledge economy’ is the term to describe the growth of IT in India.
- The famous sociologist Harry Braverman argues that the use of machinery actually deskills workers.
- The Mines Act 1952 specifies the maximum number of hours a person can be made to work in a week, the need to pay overtime for any extra hours worked and safety rules.
- Workers in underground mines face very dangerous conditions, due to flooding, fire, the collapse of roofs and sides, the emission of gases and ventilation failures.
- The rate of mining accidents in India is very high compared to other countries.
- It is an important part of the economy.
- This includes the manufacture of lace, zari or brocade, carpets, bidis, agarbattis and many such products.
- Home workers are paid on a piece-rate basis, depending on the number of pieces they make.
STRIKES AND UNIONS
- Trade unions in India have to overcome a number of problems such as regionalism and casteism.
- Bombay Textile strike of 1982,
- Led by the trade union leader, Dr. Datta Samant,
- The strike lasted nearly two years.
- The workers wanted better wages and also wanted the right to form their own union.