Class 11 History Chapter 8 Confrontation of Cultures
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NCERT Notes for Class 11 History Chapter 8 Confrontation of Cultures
Class 11 History Chapter 8 Confrontation of Cultures
It examines the encounters between European and the people of the America between 15th and 17th Centuries.
- Manuscripts, logbooks and diaries of the travelers.
- Official records, Monuments, Photographs etc.
Types of American Culture
There were two types of culture in the Americas:
- Small subsistence economies in the Caribbean region and Brazil like Arawaks.
- Well- developed cultures like the Aztecs (Mexico).Mayas (Central America) and Incas (Peru in West Coast of South America).
Communities of the Caribbnean and Brazil
The Arawaks (Bahamas) were lived on a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
Social Religious Life
1.Polygamy was common
2.Skilled boat builders
3.Role of shamans as healers
3.Lived by hunting,
4.No religious Institution like
4. Food products include
corn, sweet potatoes, tuber
1.Averse to conflict
1.Rule by clan
4.used gold ornaments
5.Art of weaving-hammock-
Tupinamba lived on the east coast of South America and Brazil.
They had no access to iron. So they could not clear forests for agriculture. Plenty of fruits, vegetables and fish in their area enabled them to lead a healthy life.
Brazil-The name Brazil is derived from the brazil wood tree. Mexico-The name after their god Mexitli
The organized state systems in Central and South America
The Aztecs had migrated from the north into Central America by the12th century
- Their society was hierarchical and dominated by the nobility.
- The king was chosen from the nobility.
- King was considered as the representative of the Sun.
- Warriors, priests and artisans, etc. were respected sections of the society.
- They made reclamations-conversion of wasteland into agricultural land.
- They built artificial islands called chinampas in Lake Mexico.
- They also constructed canals.
- They built their capital city of Tenochtitlan in 1325.
- They built temples which were dedicated to the gods of war and the Sun.
- The rural people produced corn, beans, pumpkin, potatoes etc.
- The peasants were attached to lands of nobles.
- The poor would sell their children as slaves for a limited period of time.
- Slaves could buy back their freedom.
- The Aztecs ensured that all children went to school.
- Calmecac was an institution for the military and religious training of children belonged to the nobility.
- Rest of the children went to the tepochcalli and learned history, myths, religion and ceremonial songs.
- Boys received training in army, trade and agriculture and girls in domestic affairs.
- By the early 6th century, the Aztec empire began to decline.
- The conquered people started rebellion that strained the empire.
The Mayas (11to 16th Century)
The Mayan culture developed in Mexico, Central America.
- They had less political power compared to the Aztecs.
- Corn Cultivation provided the basis for their culture.
- Several religious ceremonies were based on agriculture.
- Agriculture generated surplus production.
- Surplus production enabled the ruling class to invest in architecture.
- The Mayas developed a pictographic writing system.
The Incas (12th century)
The largest native culture in South America was Inca Civilization in Peru.
- Manco Capac was the first Inca who established his capital at Cuzco.
- It was under the 9th Inca that the empire reached its zenith.
- The empire extended from Ecuador to Chile covering 3,000miles.
- The Incas established a centralized administrative system.
- King was the highest source of authority.
- All people were instructed to speak Quechua (court language.)
- Each tribe was administered by a council of elders and loyal to the ruler.
- Local rulers were rewarded for their military co-operation.
- The Incas were great builders. They built roads and forts.
- Their forts were built of stone slabs.
- Stones cut from rock did not require mortar.
- Masons shaped the blocks by using an effective method called flaking
- They did not have wheeled vehicles to transport stones and used labour.
- Agriculture was the basis of the Inca civilization.
- They terraced hillsides and practiced agriculture.
- They also developed means of irrigation.
- The Incas produced corn and potatoes.
- Their weaving and pottery were of a high quality.
- They did not develop a system of writing.
- They developed accounting system.
- Quipu or cords were used for mathematical calculation.
- Knots were made upon cords which indicate specific mathematical units.
Motives of Voyages of Exploration by Europeans
- Invention of Magnetic compass helped voyages to unknown areas.
- Building of larger ships made it possible to carry huge quantity of cargo.
- Circulation of travel literature gave some knowledge of the world.
- Declining economy of Europe and shortage of metallic money affected trade.
- Decline of long distance trade after the conquest of Constantinople by Turks in 1453.
- Higher taxes imposed on trade with the Turks.
- Religious motive of adventurous devout Christian Europeans to spread Christianity.
- Expeditions organized by Henry the Navigator
- Economic motive to increase resources
- Rights of sovereignty over newly conquered territories
- Leaders of expeditions awarded with titles and conquered lands.
The Atlantic Crossing
- Christopher Columbus, an Italian was fond of adventure and glory.
- Sponsored by the Spanish rulers, he set sail from the port of Palos in 1492.
- His fleet was consisted of a small nao(large ship)called Santa Maria and two small ships named Pinta and Nina along with 40 sailors.
- They reached the island of Guanahani in the Bahamas.
.(He thought that it was India)
- They were welcomed by the Arawaks and they provided food
- Columbus planted a Spanish flag in Guananani (renamed San Salvador) and proclaimed himself as viceroy.
- Then he moved further to the islands of Cubanascan.
(Cuba, which he thought that Japan) and Kiskeya(renamed Hispaniola)
- They had to face accidents and hostility of the fierce Carib tribes.
- Their ships were worm eaten and the sailors tired and homesick.
- So they returned back to home and it took 32 weeks.
The achievements of Columbus
- He demonstrates that five weeks sailing with trade wind took one to the other side of the globe.
- He discovered the boundaries of infinite seas.
- It is strange that Columbus is commemorated only in a small district in the USA and in Columbia.
- The two continents were named after Amerigo Vespucci, a Geographer and described them as the ‘New World’.
- The name ‘America’ was first used by a German Publisher in 1507.
Process of the Colonization of America by Spain
- Military might of Spain with the use of gunpowder and horses was the base of Spanish colonization of America.
- The local people were forced to pay tribute or to work in gold and silver mines.
- Local chieftains were forced to explore new lands and sources of gold.
- The Spaniards were greedy and attacked the local people led to the extinction of Arawaks.
- Military repression and forced labour was followed by diseases.
- The Spaniards introduced diseases especially small pox which drastically reduced the indigenous population.
Cortes and the Aztecs
- Hernan Cortes was the conqueror of Mexico
- In 1519, he set sail from Cuba to Mexico.
- He made friends with the Totonacs, a dissent group of Aztecs.
- Montezuma, the Aztec king afraid of gun powder and horses thought Cortes to be the incarnation of exile god to take the revenge.
- Tenochtitlan, the capital subdued on 8 November 1519
- Montezuma became captive in his own palace and Cortes ruled through him for months.
- Cortes installed Christian images in the Aztec temple.
- Cortes returned to Cuba and left the charge to Alvarado.
- Incessant demands for gold by Spanish provoked uprising.
- He ordered a massacre which precipitated rebellion by the people.
- Mysterious death of Montezuma led to suspicion.
- Cuatemoc became the newly elected king.
- The Aztecs believed in omens and them predicting that their fall was imminent and the emperor chose to give up his life.
- The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of New Spain, which would later be known as Mexico.
- Cortes became Captain General of New Spain in Mexico.
Pizarro and the Incas
- Pizarro reached the Caribbean islands in 1502.
- Pizarro made attempts to reach the Inca kingdom from the Pacific
- The Spanish king offered Pizarro the governorship of the Inca lands.
- 1n 1532, Pizarro reached the Inca land and captured the King Atahualpa.
- The king offered a roomful of gold as ransom for his release.
- Pizarro executed the king and looted and occupied the country.
Cabral and Brazil
- Brazil was discovered by Cabral in 1500.
- The king of Portugal divided the coast of Brazil in 14 hereditary captaincies.
- Portuguese were given the right to land ownership and right to enslave local people.
- Portuguese began to produce sugar and sugar cane plantation with the use of slave labour.
- Portuguese king established a government with the capital in Bahia/Salvador.
- Jesuits work led to acceptance of Christianity and strong denial of slavery.
Consequences of Voyages
Conquest, Colonies and the Save Trade
- Uncertain voyages came to have lasting consequences for Europe, America and Africa.
- In 15th century maritime projects produced knowledge of Sea routes.
- The influx of gold and silver helped expansion of international trade and industrialization.
- Spain and Portugal did not capitalize the profit.
- England and France took advantage of discoveries.
- Huge income invested in trade or building up a merchant navy.
- Merchants formed joint stock companies, sent trading expedition and established colonies.
- They introduced Europeans with the product of the new world like – tobacco, potatoes, cane sugar Cacao rubber and chillies to other countries.
- The immediate consequence was the physical decimation of local population.
- Destruction of native’s livelihood and their enslavement in mines, plantation and mills.
Efforts made to abolish slavery in South America
- Slavery accompanied the emerging capitalist system of production
- Exploitation was essential to economic gain
- Philip II of Spain banned forced labour in 1601.
- Law of 1609 abolished slavery, but settlers compelled king to withdraw the law.
- Now African slaves were imported
- Slavery existed in Africa prior to the entry of the Europeans.
- Even Africans helped in the capture of slave in lieu of crops imported from South America.
- Reassessment of the suffering experienced by African slaves is still going on (Eric Williams in his book Capitalism and Slavery).
South America is called ‘Latin America’
- Spanish and Portuguese languages are the main language of the continent.
- These languages are part of the Latin family of Languages.
- The inhabitants are mostly native European and African by origin.
- People are Catholics and its culture has many elements of native traditions mixed with European ones.
- Dona Marina was a woman attendant of Cortes who played a role in the Spanish conquest of Aztec Empire.
- She was fluent in three local languages acted as an interpreter for Cortes.
- In his book, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Bernard Diaz del Castillo (1495–1584) wrote about this woman.
- He thought that she was a princess, but Mexicans called her ’Malinche’ a word meaning ‘betrayal’.
Conquistadores: Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Reconquista: Military reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian kings from the Arabs in 1492.
Cosmography: A science of mapping the universe. It describes both heaven and Earth.
Reclamation: conversion of waste land into land suitable for habitation or cultivation.
Animism: The belief that natural objects have life and soul
Viceroy: In place of the king
Capitalist system: A system in which the means of production and distribution are owned by individuals or cooperate.