Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2 Notes

NCERT Class 9 Political Science(Civics) Chapter 2 Notes CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN

NCERT Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2 Notes Social Science CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2 Notes CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN. It’s most effective natural to get stuck withinside the exercises while solving them so that you can assist students score higher marks, we’ve provided step by step NCERT answers for all exercises of Class nine Social Science CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN so you can are looking for assist from them. Students should solve those exercises carefully as questions withinside the final exams are requested from those, so these exercises immediately have an impact on students’ final score. Find all NCERT Notes for Class nine Social Science CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN below and prepare in your tests easily



Democratic constitution in South Africa

Struggle against apartheid

  1. Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa.
  2. The white Europeans imposed this system on South Africa.
  3. The system of apartheid divided the people and labeled them on the basis of their skin colour.
  4. The native people of South Africa are black in colour.
  5. About three-fourth of the population and were called ‘blacks.
  6. People of mixed races who were called ‘coloured’ and people who migrated from India.
  7. The white rulers treated all non-whites as inferiors.
  8. The non-whites did not have voting rights.

Rules and Regulation for Blacks imposed by Whites

  1. They were forbidden from living in white areas.
  2. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.
  3. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks.
  4. This was called segregation.
  5. They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped.
  6. Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.


  1. Since 1950, the blacks, Coloured and Indians fought against the apartheid system.
  2. They launched protest marches and strikes.

The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organization that led the struggle against the policies of segregation.

Towards a new constitution

  1. As protests and struggles against apartheid had increased, the government realized that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression.
  2. Discriminatory laws were repealed.
  3. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. After 28 years of imprison men, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as free man. At the midnight of 26 April 1994, the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa was unfurled marking the newly born democracy in the world.
  4. South Africa Constitution based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights.
  5. This constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.

Why do we need a constitution?

  1. The constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country.
  2. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.

A constitution does many things:

  • First, it generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
  • Second, it specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
  • Third, it lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
  • Fourth It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Making of the Indian Constitution

  1. India’s Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances.
  2. The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences.
  3. At least ten Lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence.
  4. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.
  5. The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task.

The Path to Constitution

  1. In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India.
  2. In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how Independent India’s constitution should look like.
  3. Universal adult franchise.
  4. Right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities.

Many of our leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution, The practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the US. The socialist revolution in Russia.

The Constituent Assembly

  • The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946.
  • The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members. The assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January 1950. To mark this day we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.
  • Why should we accept the Constitution made by this Assembly more than six decades ago?
  • The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone.

It expresses a broad consensus of its time.

In some other countries, the Constitution exists as a mere piece of paper. No one actually follows it.

No large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself.

Constituent Assembly represented the people of India.

In social terms too, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.

Third Reason

The Constituent Assembly worked in a systemic, open and consensual manner.

  1. First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon.
  2. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion.
  3. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause.
  4. More than two thousand amendments were considered.
  5. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years.
  6. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved.
  7. These are called Constituent Assembly Debates.

Philosophy of the Constitution

  1. These values are embedded in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.
  2. The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values. This is called the Preamble to the constitution.
  3. We, The people of India, Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic, Justice, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.

Institutional Design

Apartheid: The official policy of racial separation and ill treatment of blacks followed by the government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989.

Clause: A distinct section of a document.

Constituent Assembly: An assembly of people’s representatives that writes a constitution for a country.

Constitution: Supreme law of a country, containing fundamental rules governing the politics and society in a country.

Constitutional Amendment: A change in the constitution made by the supreme legislative body in a country.

Draft: A preliminary version of a legal document.

Philosophy: The most fundamental principles underlying one’s thoughts and actions.

Preamble: An introductory statement in a constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution.

Treason: The offence of attempting to overthrow the government of the state to which the offender owes allegiance.

Tryst: A meeting or meeting place that has been agreed upon.

Benefits of NCERT Class 9 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 2 Notes CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN

Ncert Class 9 civics Chapter 2 Notes CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN contains extremely important points, and for each chapter, each concept has been simplified to make it easier to remember and increase your chances of achieving excellent exam results. Exam Preparation References Here are some tips on how these solutions can help you prepare for the exam.

  1. This helps students solve many of the problems in each chapter and encourages them to make their concepts more meaningful.
  2. Class 9 civics Chapter 2 Notes CONSTITUTIONAL DESIGN encourage you to update your knowledge and refine your concepts so that you can get good results in the exam.
  3. These solutions are the best exam materials, allowing you to learn more about your week and your strengths. To get good results in the exam, it is important to overcome your weaknesses.
  4. Most of the questions in the exam are formulated in a similar way to NCERT textbooks. Therefore, students should review the solutions in each chapter in order to better understand the topic.
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Tips & Strategies for Class 9 Exam Preparation

  1. Plan your course and syllabus and make time for revision
  2. Please refer to the NCERT solution available on the cbsestudyguru website to clarify your concepts every time you prepare for the exam.
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  6. Practice an ample number of question papers to make your concepts stronger. 
  7. Take rest and a proper meal.  Don’t stress too much. 

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