Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022 (Solved)
Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Sample Question Papers for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.
Class 12 Sociology Term 2 Sample Paper 2022
- The paper has 14 questions.
- All questions are compulsory.
- Section A-Question number 1 and 2 are one-mark source based questions. The answer to these questions must not exceed 10-15 words.
- Section B-Question number 3 to 9 are two-marks questions. These are very short answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 30 words.
- Section C-Question number 10 to 12 are four-marks questions. These are short answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 80 words.
- Section D-Question number 13 and 14 are six-marks questions. These are long answer type questions. The answer to these questions should not exceed 200 words.
Section – A
(1 Mark each)
1. This right is a radical departure from the days of colonial rule when ordinary people were forced to submit to the authority of colonial officers who represented the interests of the British Crown. However, even in Britain, not everyone was allowed to vote.
Read the source and answer the following question: 1
Why is the right to vote for all considered to be a radical change?
2. In traditional India, caste system operated within a religious framework Belief systems of purity and pollution were central to its practice. Today, it often functions as a political pressure group. Contemporary India has seen such formation of caste associations and caste-based political parties. They seek to press upon the State their demands.
Read the source and answer the following question: 1
What does such a change in the caste system refer to?
Section – B
(2 Marks each)
3. Colonialism was a story apart in the very scale and intensity of the changes that it brought about. This magnitude and depth of the structural changes that colonialism unleashed can be better grasped if we try and understand some basic features of capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and organised to accumulate profits within a market system. Western colonialism was inextricably connected to the growth of Western capitalism. This had a lasting impact on the way capitalism developed in a colonised country like India.
(i) How does capitalism affect the economic condition of a country? 2
(ii) Why did colonialism introduce several changes?
4. In response to harsh working conditions, sometimes workers went on strike. In a strike, workers do not go to work. In a lockout, the management shuts the gate and prevents workers from coming. To call a strike is a difficult decision as managers may try to use substitute labour- Workers also find it hard to sustain themselves without wages.
(i) Distinguish between a strike and a lockout. 2
(ii) How does a strike impact workers?
5. Why is the absolute increase in population more in urban areas than in rural areas after the Independence? 2
6. How have capitalism and colonialism usually been interlinked? 2
7. State one kind of Westernisation. 2
8. Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. Give examples to justify the given statement. 2
How did colonialism lead to the movement of people before the Independence?
9. What is the role of Sanskritisation in improving the status of people? 2
Section – C
(4 Marks each)
10. How is the rural class structure shaped in Indian society? 4
11. What does the rough correspondence between caste and class mean? 4
What are the transformations in the nature of social relations in rural areas that underwent during the Green Revolution?
12. Give a detailed account of industrialisation in the early years of Indian independence. 4
Section – D
(6 Marks each)
13. What was Green Revolution? What were its drawbacks? 6
Analyse the role of Backward Classes Movements in changing the structure of the society.
14. How did the Green Revolution bring rapid social and economic transformations? 6
Solution of Sample Paper
Section – A
1. It gives the freedom that people cannot be governed by anyone other than the people they have elected to represent. 1
2. Such a changed role of caste is described as the secularisation of caste. 1
Section – B
3. Effect of Capitalism in the economics condition of a country:
(i) Capitalism is an economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and organised to accumulate profits within a market system.
(ii) To facilitate the smooth functioning of its rule, colonialism introduced a wide array of changes in every sphere, be it legal cultural or architectural. 1+1=2
4. (i) Ina strike, workers do not go to work. In a lockout, the management shuts the gate and prevents workers from coming.
(ii) Workers also find it hard to sustain themselves without wages. 1+1=2
5. For the first time since Independence, the absolute increase in population is more in urban areas than in rural areas. This is due to a sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas, while the growth rate in urban areas remains almost the same. 2
6. Since capitalism and colonialism have usually been interlinked through forms of imperialism, social movements have simultaneously targeted both these forms of exploitation. That is—nationalist movements have mobilised against rule by a foreign power as well as against the dominance of foreign capital. 2
7. One kind of a westernised sub-cultural pattern through a minority section of Indians who first came in contact with Western culture. This included the subculture of Indian intellectuals who not only adopted many cognitive patterns 2
8. Caste distinctions do not matter on trains, buses or in cyber cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in a new factory or workplace setting.
It led to the movement of people from one part to another within India. For instance, people from present-day Jharkhand moved to Assam to work on the tea plantations.
9. Sanskritisation suggests a process whereby people want to improve their status through the adoption of names and customs of culturally high-placed groups. The ‘reference model* is usually financially better. In both, the aspiration or desire to be like the higher placed group occurs only when people become wealthier. 2
Section – C
10. The term agrarian structure is often used to refer to the structure or distribution of landholding. In the field of agricultural production or in peasantry as a whole there are some classes. These classes are agricultural classes. Because agricultural land is the most important productive resource in rural areas, access to land shapes the rural class structure. But, we must also remember structure that it is through the caste system, In rural areas, there is a complex relationship between caste and class. 4
11. The rough correspondence between caste and class means that typically the upper and middle castes also had the best access to land and resources, and hence, to power and privilege. This had important implications for the rural economy and society. In most regions of the country, a ‘proprietary caste’ group owns most of the resources and can command labour to work for them. Until recently, practices such as begar or free labour were prevalent in many parts of northern India. 4
Several profound transformations like social relations in rural areas took place in the post-Independence period, especially in those regions that underwent the Green Revolution. These included:
(i) an increase in the use of agricultural labour as cultivation became more intensive;
(ii) a shift from payment in kind (grain) to pay in cash;
(iii) a loosening of traditional bonds or hereditary relationships between farmers or landowners and agricultural workers (known as bonded labour) and
(iv) the rise of a class of ‘free’ wage labourers.
12. The first modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways. After independence, the government took over the ‘commanding heights of the economy.’ This involved defence, transport and communication, power, mining and other projects, which only the government had the power to do, and which was also necessary for private industry to flourish. The government also tried to encourage the small-scale sector through special incentives and assistance. Many items like paper and wood products, stationery, glass and ceramics were reserved for the small-scale sector. 4
Section – D
13. (i) The green revolution was introduced to reform agricultural production in our country.
(ii) Under this program HYV seeds, new irrigation techniques, increased ‘usage of fertilizers and pesticides were introduced.
There were several drawbacks of this revolution:
(iii) It depleted groundwater level
(iv) It reduced the quality of soil
(v) It led to unequal development among different states of the country as arid and semi arid areas could not gain benefit of this revolution.
(vi) Since, the new HYV seeds, fertilizers and new methods of irrigation required investment hence, only the rich farmers could gain benefit of this revolution. 6
A crucial result of the Backward Classes Movement was to emphasise the role of secular factors in the upward mobility of caste groups and individuals.
Some organizations that were formed to address the issues of the Backward Caste during the 20th century.
• United Provinces Hindu Backward Classes League
• All-India Backward Classes Federation
• All India Backward Classes League
• In 1954, nearly 88 organisations were working for the Backward Classes.
In the case of the dominant castes, there was no longer any desire to pass for the Vaisyas, Kshatriyas and Brahmins. On the other hand, it was prestigious to be a member of the dominant caste. Recent years have seen likewise assertions of Dalits who now pride their identity as Dalits. However, sometimes as among the poorest and the most marginalised of the Dalit caste groups, caste identity seems to compensate for their marginality in other domains. In other words, Dalits have gained some pride and self-confidence but otherwise remain excluded and discriminated against.
14. (i) The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s brought about significant changes in the areas where it took place. It was a government programme of agricultural modernisation.
(ii) It was largely funded by international agencies that were based on providing high-yielding variety(HYV) or hybrid seeds along with pesticides, fertilisers, and other inputs, to farmers.
(iii) Green Revolution programmes were introduced only in areas that had assured irrigation because sufficient water was necessary for the new seeds and methods of cultivation. It was also targeted mainly at the wheat and rice-growing areas.
(iv) As a result, only certain regions such as Punjab, western U.P., coastal Andhra Pradesh, and parts of Tamil Nadu, received the first wave of the Green Revolution package.
(v) The demand and the wage for labours increased. However, class divide increased. Regional inequalities increased. States such as Bihar, eastern UP and Telangana remained underdeveloped.
(vi) Given few negative consequences, few farmers and scientists suggest traditional agricultural method such as organic farming. The rapid social and economic transformations that were seen in these areas stimulated a spate of studies by social scientists, and vigorous debates about the impact of the Green Revolution. 6