Sociology Chapter 8 Important Question Social Movements Term 2 2022
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Important Question Social Movements Term 2 2022, (Sociology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.
Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 8 Important Question Social Movements Term 2 2022
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who wrote the book ‘The Logic of Collective Action?
(a) Zald (b) James Scott
(c) Mancur Olson (d) Mc Carthy
Ans. (c) Mancur Olson wrote the book ‘The Logic of Collective Action’. The book says that a social movement is an aggregation of rational individual actors pursuing their self-interest.
2. Which of the following are the essential elements in creating social movements?
(a) Identity politics (b) Aspirations
(c) Cultural anxieties (d) All of these
Ans. (d) Identity politics, cultural anxieties and aspirations are essential elements in creating social movements. These movements occur in ways that are difficult to trace only to class-based inequality.
3. When did the Naxalite Movement start from the region of Naxalbari?
(a) 1946 (b) 1967 (c) 1929 (d) 1968
Ans. (b) The Naxalite movement started from the region of Naxalbari in 1967 in Bengal. The central problem for peasants was land.
4. The New Farmer’s Movement began in the period of________
(a) 1960’s (b) 1970’s (c) 1980’s (d) 1990’s
Ans. (b) The ‘New Farmer’s Movement’ began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu.
5. By whom was the first Trade Union established in 1918 in Madras?
(a) BP Wadia (b) Narayan Guru
(c) SA Dange (d) M Joshi
Ans. (a) The first trade union was established in April 1918 in Madras by B.P Wadia, a social worker and member of the Theosophical Society.
6. In which year, the government passed the fourth Factories Act which reduced the working day to 10 hours?
(a) 1920 (b) 1921
(c) 1922 (d) 1923
Ans. (c) In 1922 the government passed the fourth Factories Act which reduced the working day to 10 hours.
7. Dalit literature opposed the____________ system.
(a) Chaturvarna (b) Hindu
(c) British (d) Gandhian
Ans. (a) Dalit literature opposed the Chaturvarna system and caste hierarchy. It considers these as responsible for crushing the creativity and very existence of lower castes.
8. The growth of autonomous women’s movements took place during which period?
(a) 1950’s (b) 1960’s
(c) 1970’s (d) 1980’s
Ans. (c) There was the growth of autonomous women’s movements in the mid-1970s. While many of the concerns remained the same as the earlier women’s movements, there were changes both in terms of organisational strategy, as well as, ideologies.
9. The Right to Information campaign is an example of
(a) Redemptive Movements
(b) Reformist Movements
(c) Revolutionary Movements
(d) Old Social Movements
Ans. (b) The Right to Information campaign is an example of reformist movements. Reformist social movements strive to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual, incremental steps.
10. The Adi Dharma Movement was visible in the state of___________
(a) Punjab (b) Maharashtra
(c) Chhattisgarh (d) Delhi
Ans. (a) The Adi Dharma Movement was visible in the state of Punjab. It asserted a Dalit identity and a quest for equality, self dignity and eradication of untouchability.
11. Which one of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) The All India Union was established in 1920.
(b) The All India Trade Union Congress was established in 1920.
(c) The first trade union was established in April 1918.
(d) The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was established in May 1947.
Ans. (a) The All India Trade Union Congress was established in 1920. The first Trade Union was established in April 1918, and the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) was established in May 1947.
12. Which of the following statements is invalid regarding social movements?
(a) Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue.
(b) Social movement activists hold meetings to mobilise people around the issues that concern them.
(c) Social movements also chart out campaigns that include lobbying with the government, media and other important makers of public opinion.
(d) Poetry is not a mode of protest.
Ans. (d) Statement (d) is invalid because poetry is a mode of social protest. The social movement develops their unique modes of protest, including street theatre, songs, poetry, torch light processions, etc.
13. Which of the following statements in correct about EP Thompson?
(a) He held that the ‘crowd’ and the ‘mob’ were not made up of anarchic hooligans out ‘to destroy society’.
(b) Poor people in urban areas had good reasons for protesting.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) or (b)
Ans. (c) E.P Thompson said that the ‘crowd’ and the ‘mob’ were not made up of anarchic hooligans out to destroy society. Their research showed that poor people in urban areas had good reasons for protesting. They often resorted to public protest because they had no other way of expressing their anger and resentment against deprivation.
14. ______ was a social movement for parliamentary representation in England. In 1839, more than 1.25 million people signed the people’s charter asking for universal male suffrage, voting by ballot, and the right to stand for elections without owning property. In 1842, the movement managed to collect 3.25 million signatures, a huge number for a tiny country.
(a) Chartism (b) Fascism
(c) Communism (d) Regionalism
Ans. (a) Chartism was a social movement for parliamentary representation in England. Even in Britain, not everyone was allowed to vote. Voting rights were limited to property-owning men.
15. When Raja Rammohan Roy campaigned against sati and established the Brahmo Samaj, sati supporters formed the____________ and petitioned the British not to legislate against it. Many people objected to reformers ‘demands for girls’ education, claiming that it would be devastating for society. Reformers who advocated for widow remarriage were socially shunned.
(a) Swatantra Sabha (b) Dharma Sabha
(c) Arya Samaj (d) None of these
Ans. (b) When Raja Rammohan Roy campaigned against sati and formed the Brahmo Samaj, defenders of sati formed Dharma Sabha and petitioned the British not to legislate against sati.
Direction (Q. Nos. 1-4) Each of these questions contains two statements, Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Each of these questions also has four alternative choices, any one of which is the correct answer. You have to select one of the codes (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is true, but R is false
(d) A is false, but R is true
1. Assertion (A) : Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue.
Reason (R) : Protest is the most visible form of collective action.
Ans. (b) Social movements arise with the aim of bringing about changes in public issues. But it cannot change society easily, as its met with opposition and resistance. While protest is the most visible form of collective action, social movements also carry equal importance. A social movement is a form of sustained collective action. Thus, both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
2. Assertion (A) : Social conflict does not automatically lead to collective action.
Reason (R) : A group must consciously think or identify themselves as oppressed beings for conflict to arise.
Ans. (a) Social conflict does not automatically lead to collective action because, in most cases, a group of people fails to recognize they are being exploited or oppressed. Therefore, the reason explains the assertion correctly. Thus, both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
3. Assertion (A) : The Chipko movement raised the issue of ecological sustainability.
Reason (R) : Cutting down forests was a form of environmental destruction that had resulted in devastating floods and landslides in the region.
Ans. (a) The Chipko movement raised the issue of ecological sustainability as cutting down natural forests had resulted in devastating floods and landslides in the region. The villages depended on the forest for their survival, but they also valued the forest for its own sake as a form of ecological wealth. Concerns about economy, ecology and political representation underlay the Chipko movement. Thus, both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
4. Assertion (A): The Dalit Movement is said to be a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings.
Reason (R) : There has been a growing body of Dalit literature.
Ans. (b) The Dalit Movement has acquired a place in the public sphere that cannot be ignored. This has been accompanied by a growing body of Dalit literature. The Dalit Movement is a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings. It is a struggle for self-confidence and a space for self-determination. Thus, both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
Case Based MCQs
1. Read the passages given below and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct option.
Vimal Dadasaheb More (1970)
Speech by Ankush Kale who was born in a pardhi community at a public meeting. The pardhis are very skillful hunters. Yet society recognises us only as criminals…. Our community has to undergo police torture under the charge of theft. Whenever there is a theft in the village, it is we who get arrested. The police exploit our womenfolk and we have to witness their humiliation. Society has to keep us at a distance because we are called thieves. But have people ever tried to give us a thought. Why do our people steal? It is this society that is responsible for turning us into thieves. They never employ us because we are pardhis.
(i) From the viewpoint of the Pardhi community,_____________ is responsible for their conditioning as thieves.
(a) society (b) their culture
(c) their profession (d) None of these
Ans. (a) From the viewpoint of the Pardhi community, society is responsible for conditioning as thieves and pushing their people to steal as they are deprived of employment.
(ii) “They never employ us because we are Pardhis” expresses which notion?
(a) Alienation (b) Moral economy
(c) Discrimination (d) Both (a) and (c)
Ans. (c) This statement expresses the notion of discrimination where the Pardhis are refused to employment on the basis of their community identity.
(iii) The dominant ideology is society labels Pardhis as__________ .
(a) Criminals (b) Thieves
(c) hunters (d) Both options (a) and (b)
Ans. (d) The dominant ideology in society labels Pardhis as criminals and thieves, but they view themselves as skilled hunters.
2. Social conflict does not automatically lead to collective action. For such action to take place, a group must consciously drink or identity themselves as oppressed beings. There has to be an organisation, leadership, and a clear ideology. Often, however, social protest does not follow on these lines. People may have a clear idea of how they are exploited, but they are often unable to challenge this through over political mobilisation and protest. In his book Weapons of the Weak, James Scott analysed the lives of peasants and labourers in Malaysia. Protests against injustice took the form of small acts such as being deliberately slow. These kinds of acts have been defined as everyday acts of resistance.
(i) James Scott examined the lives of peasants and labourers in Malaysia in his book________________
(a) Reinventing Revolution
(b) Weapons of the Weak
(c) The Logic of Collective Action
(d) None of the above
Ans. (b) In his book ‘Weapons of the Weak’, James Scott examined the lives of peasants and labourers in Malaysia. He saw that protests can also take the form of small acts such as being deliberately slow, called everyday acts of resistance.
(ii) In which of the following cases, social conflict arises?
(a) When a group identifies itself as oppressed
(b) When a group identifies itself as superior
(c) When there is political protest
(d) All of the above
Ans. (a) Social conflict arises when a group identifies itself as oppressed. Such conflict is likely to result in successful collective protest.
(iii) Which of the following is needed for social conflict?
(a) Leadership (b) Clear ideology
(c) Organisation (d) All of these
Ans. (d) For social conflict there has to be clear ideology an organisation and a leadership. Social conflict leads to collective action when a group consciously thinks or identifies themselves as oppressed beings.
Short Answer (SA) Type Questions
1. Discuss the feature of social movements.
Ans. The features of social movements are as follows
• social movement requires sustained collective action over time. Such action is often directed against the state and takes the form of demanding changes in State Policy or practice.
• Those people who participate in social movements have shared objectives and ideologies.
• Social movement activists hold meetings to mobilise people around the issues that concern them. Such activities help shared understanding.
• Social movements also plan out campaigns that include lobbying with the government, media and other important makers of public opinion.
2. Exemplify the difference between social change and social movement.
Ans. The differences between the social change and social movement are as follows
Social change is continuous and ongoing.
On the other hand, the social movements are directed towards some specific goals.
The broad historical processes of social change are the sum total of countless individual and collective actions gathered across time and space.
It involves long and continuous social efforts and action by people.
The example of social change are Sanskritisation and Westernisation.
Example of social movement is the 19th century social reformers effort to change society.
3. Name and define the three types of social movements. (Delhi 2011)
Ans. The three types of social movements are as follows
(i) Redemptive Social Movement : This movement aims to bring about a change in the personal consciousness and actions of its individual members. For instance, people in the Ezhava community in Kerala by Narayan Guru to change their social practice.
(ii) Reformist Social Movements : The movement strive to change the existing social and political arrangements though gradual incremental steps. The 1960s movement for the reorganisation of Indian states on the basis of language and the recent Right to Information campaign are examples of reformist movements.
(iii) Revolutionary Social Movements : This movement attempt to radically transform social relations, often by capturing state power. The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia that deposed the Tsar to capture a communist state and Naxalite movement in India that seeks to remove oppressive landlords and state officials are examples of revolutionary social movements.
4. Write about the difference between Old and New social movements. (Delhi 2014)
Ans. The differences between Old and New Social movement are as follows
Old Social Movement
New Social Movement
The old social system functioned within the framework of political parties.
These were not about changing the distribution to power in society but about quality of life issues such as having a clean environment.
The role of political parties was central.
Non-party political formations in order to put pressure on the state from outside.
It is restricted to certain regions/nations.
It is international in scope.
5. “The varied social reform movements had common themes yet were different.” Explain. (CBSE 2018)
Ans. The varied social reform movements did have common themes yet there were also significant differences. This can be proved with the help of following points
• For some, the concerns were confined to the problems that the upper caste, middle class women and men faced. For others, the injustices suffered by the discriminated castes were the central questions.
• For some, social evils had emerged because of a decline of the true spirit of Hinduism. For others, caste and gender oppression was intrinsic of the religion.
• There were movements for Muslim women. One group had argued against the practice of polygamy whereas, other group had fought for the abolishment of Triple Talaq.
• Debates within communities were common in various movements. For instance, Sati was opposed by the Brahmo Samaj. Orthodox members of the Hindu community in Bengal formed an organisation called ‘Dharma Sabha’ and petitioned the British arguing that reformers had no right to interpret sacred texts.
6. Explain the ‘ecological movement’ with special reference to ‘Chipko Movement’.
Ans. The ecological or environmental movement is a diverse scientific, social and a political movement for addressing environmental issues.
The Chipko Movement is an example of the ecological movement in the Himalayan foothills.
This conflict placed the livelihood needs of poor villagers against the government’s desire to generate revenues from selling timber. The economy of subsistence was pitted against the economy of profit. People used the method of hugging the trees to prevent them from felling down by the contractors. The Chipko Movement also raised the issue of ecological sustainability. Cutting down natural forests was a form of environmental destruction that had resulted in devastating floods and landslides in the region.
7. Environmental movements often also contain economic and identity issues. Discuss. (NCERT)
Ans. Environmental movements now are questioning the modem view of development based on unchecked use of natural resources and greater exploitation of natural resources. These movements are not just about the environmental protection, they are also about fight for the economic and identity issues.
For instance, in Chipko Movement, the local women who depended on the forests for their livelihood by getting firewood, fodder and other daily necessities, fought against government decision to cut down the forest for timber to generate greater revenue. In this case, we can see the economic dimension of this environmental movement.
Tribals in the present times are fighting government against mining, for forest rights, etc. Adivasis present in the forest are now trying to assert their identity and culture which is linked to the forest. For example, in Jharkhand movement, tribals opposed acquisition of land for large irrigation project and boycotted nationalisation of forest produce. One of the key issues is alienation of tribals from forest lands. Thus in this case, environmental movements are associated with identity of tribals.
8. Why are the New Farmers Movement termed as New Social Movement?
Ans. In New Farmer’s Movement certain issues which had dominated colonial times changed after independence. The so called New Farmers Movement began in the 1970 in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. These movements were regionally organised.
These were non-party movements and involved farmers (Farmers are said to be market-involved. They are both commodity producers and purchasers), rather than peasants. The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and anti-urban.
The focus of demand were price and related issues e.g. price procurement, remunerative prices, prices for agricultural inputs, taxation, non-payment of loans. Novel methods of agitation were used i.e., blocking of roads and railways, refusing politicians and bureaucrats entry into village.
It has been argued that the farmers movements have broadened their agenda and ideology and include environment and women’s issues. So they can be seen as a part of worldwide New social movements.
9. Evaluate Worker’s movement as class-based movement. (Delhi 2014)
Ans. The first trade union was established in April 1918 in Madras by BP Wadia, Social worker and member of Theosophical Society. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was an organisation involving diverse ideologies.
The formation of the AITUC made the colonial government more cautious in dealing with labour. It attempted to grant workers some concessions in order to contain unrest.
In 1922, the government passed the Fourth Factories Act, which reduced the working day to 10 hours. By the mid 1920s, the AITUC had nearly 200 unions affiliated to it and its membership stood at around 250,000.
After the British rule, the communist gained considerable control over the AITUC. The Indian National Congress choose to form another union called the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in May 1947. In 1966-67, due to major recession, it led to a decrease in production and consequently employment.
In 1974, there was a major railway workers strike. The confrontation between the state and trade unions became acute. During the emergency in 1975-77, the government curbed all trade union activities. The worker’s movement was very much part of the wider struggle for civil liberties.
10. Write in brief about Dalit movements.
Ans. The social movements of Dalits have a particular character because it has many dimensions. In addition to political and economic exploitation, it represents the struggle for recognition as fellow beings, for self-confidence, for self-determination alongside abolishment of stigmatisation. It has been called a struggle to be touched. It refers to those who have been broken, grounded down by those above them.
Dalit movements have highlighted various issues related to Dalits around different ideologies. In these movements, there have been common quest for equality, self-dignity and eradication of untouchability.
The Dalit movements for example were Satnami Movement of the Chamars in the Chhattisgarh plains in Eastern Madhya Pradesh, Adi Dharma Movement in Punjab, the Mahar Movement in Maharashtra and the Anti-Brahman Movement in South India.
11. Analyse social reform movements initiated towards women’s equality and rights in the 19th century.
Ans. The women’s movement in the 19th century saw the growth of women’s organisation at a national and local level.
The organisations like the Women’s India Association (WIA) was started in 1917. All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) in 1926, National Council for Women in India in 1925 started for women. The AIWC began with the idea that women’s welfare and politics were mutually exclusive.
Over the years, there have been numerous campaigns that have been taken up towards violence against women. Important legal changes have taken place because of the women’s movement. Issues of land rights, employment have been fought alongside, rights against sexual harassment and dowry.
12. Imagine a society where there has been no social movement. Discuss. Can you also describe how you imagine such a society to be. (NCERT)
Ans. A society where there is no social movement should have been an inclusive society where every section be it workers, women, tribals or dalits etc. will be enjoying benefits of development. The society will be based on egalitarian principles. This society will be free from exploitation of any kind and people will enjoy certain inalienable rights. This kind of society can also be referred to as one with continuous and ongoing social change but free from social movements.
This type of society can be imagined by choosing a welfare state approach in which society will be free from discrimination. The government should provide minimum basic amenities to the people. This type of approach will not allow the people to go for social movement as the interest of every group will be taken care of.
Long Answer (LA) Type Questions
1. Explain the theories of social movements in sociology. (All India 2013)
Ans. There are many theories regarding social movements. Some most important of them are as follows
(i) Theory of Relative Deprivation : This theory says that social conflict arises when a social group feels that it is worse-off than others around it. It stresses the role of psychological factors such as resentment and rage in inciting social movements. The limitation of this theory are that while perceptions of deprivation may be a necessary condition for collective action but not a sufficient reason in themselves.
(ii) Theory of Collective Action : Mancur Olson presented his theory on social movement in the book titled ‘The Logic of Collective Action’. He argued that it is the activities of rational people who pursue their self-interest that allow the growth of social movements. He argues that social movement is an aggregation of rational individual actors pursuing their self-interest.
They argue that when people join the organisations they do first sit down to calculate the expenses and profits of such membership. Thus, his theory is based on the rational utility maximising individual.
(iii) Resource Mobilisation Theory : This theory was put forward by Me Carthy and Mayer Nathan Zald. They rejected the theory of Olson that social movements are the creations of self-serving people.
They argued that social movements success on its ability to mobilise resources or means of different sorts. By resources, they mean things like leadership organisational capacity and communication facilities. They added if the resources are used by taking advantage of the existing political opportunities the movement will be more successful. Critics argue that social movement is not limited by existing resources.
They can create new resources and go forward. They pointed out that many movements by poor people had succeeded although they did not have many resources.
2. What were the conducive conditions in India to start social reform movements?
Ans. The conducive conditions in India to start social reform movements were as follows
• Western Education : When the Britishers started to ride over India, then they started to spread Western education. When Indians came in contact with Western education, they came to know about science and reasoning. They came to know that the prevailing customs of the Indian society were useless and baseless. That’s why enlightened Indians started social movements.
• Development of Means of Transport : Britishers developed means of transport for their own convenience but Indians took maximum advantage of these means. With the advent of means of transport, Indians came in contact with each other. Enlightened and educated Indians reached different parts of the country and explained to the people that the prevailing customs are useless for them.
• Advent of Indian Press : Press started in India after the advent of the British. Organisers of movements started to publish small newspapers and magazines so that Indians could read them and should understand that these evils are very harmful for the society. It is necessary for them to overthrow these evils from the society. In this way, Indian’s came to know that it is necessary for them to remove these social evils.
• Increasing Impact of Missionaries : When the Britishers came to India Christian missionaries also came with them. They were given help by the Britishers. Gradually, people started to adopt Christianity. When Indian social reformers came to know about this thing, they also started reform movements in India. In this way, these movements were started due to the impact of Christian missionaries.
• Evils of Indian Society : Most of the social reform movements were started to remove the social evils of the society. Sati, child marriage, restriction on widow remarriage, dowry system, untouchability, etc. are the examples of some of the social evils of Indian society.
3. In India it is difficult to make a clear distinction between the Old and New social movements. Discuss. (NCERT)
Ans. It is true that in India it is difficult to make a clear distinction between the Old and New social movements. This can be understood through the following points
• India has experienced a whole array of social movements involving women, peasants, dalits, adivasis, and others. Gail Omvedt in her book ‘Reinventing Revolution’ points out that concerns about social inequality and the unequal distribution of resources continue to be important elements in these movements. Peasant movements have mobilised for better prices for their produce and protested against the removal of agricultural subsidies. Dalit labourers have acted collectively to ensure that they are not exploited by upper-caste landowners and money-lenders. The women’s movement has worked on issues of gender discrimination in diverse spheres like the workplace and within the family.
• At the same time, these new social movements are not just about ‘old’ issues of economic inequality. Now are they organised along class lines alone. Identity politics, cultural anxieties and aspirations are essential elements in creating social movements and occur in ways that are difficult to trace to class-based inequality. Often, these social movements unite participants across class boundaries. For instance, the women’s movement includes urban, middle-class feminists as well as poor peasant women. The regional movements for separate statehood brings together different groups of people who do not share homogeneous class identities. In a social movement, questions of social inequality can occur alongside other, equally important, issues.
4. The peasant movement in India carries a massive significance in terms of class-based movements. Elucidate the history of peasant movements in the Indian context.
Ans. The term ‘peasant movement’ refers to all kinds of collective attempts of different strata of the peasantry either to change the system which they felt was exploitative, or to seek redress for particular grievances without necessarily aiming at overthrowing the system. Few of the important peasant movements cutting across different time period are explained below.
Peasant Movements between 1920 and 1940
The first organisation to be founded was the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (1929) and in 1935 the -All India Kisan Sabha. The peasants organised by the Sabians demanded freedom from economic exploitation for peasants, workers and all other exploited classes.
Peasant Movements at the Time of Independence
The Tebhaga Movement (1946-47) – Just before Independence, it was the Tebhaga struggle of 1946-47 in Bengal and North Bihar which was the most effective and widespread of all peasant movements. It was a struggle of share croppers (bargadars) to retain two-third share of the produce for themselves instead of the customary half.
The movement was the outcome of the politicisation of the peasantry which was made possible because of the efforts and support of the Communist Party of India (CPI) and the Kisan Sabha.
The Telangana Movement (1946-51) – It was directed against the feudal conditions in the Princely State of Hyderabad and was led by the CPI. Certain issues which had dominated colonial times changed after independence. For land reforms, zamindari abolition, declining importance of land revenue and public credit system began to alter rural areas.
Peasant Movements After Independence
The Naxalite Struggle – The Naxalite movement started from the region of Naxalbari (1967) in Bengal. The central problem for peasants was land.
The New Farmer’s Movements – The so called ‘New’ Farmers Movements began in the 1970s in Punjab and Tamil Nadu. These movements were regionally organised, they were non-party and involved farmers rather than peasants.
The basic ideology of the movement was strongly anti-state and anti-urban. The focus of demand were on ‘price related issues’, e.g. price procurement, remunerative prices, prices for agricultural inputs, taxation and non-repayment of loans.
5. Distinguish between Peasant and New Farmer’s Movements. (NCERT)
Ans. The below table differentiates between peasant movement and new farmer’s movement
New Farmer’s Movement
Peasant or agrarian movements have taken place from re-colonial days.
These movements began in the 1970s in Punjab Tamil Nadu.
In the period between 1858 and 1914, these movements were localised, disjoined and confined to particular grievances.
In comparison, these movements were regionally organized, with no party involvement, and included farmers instead of peasants.
Some well-known movements are the Bengal Revolt of 1859-62 against the indigo plantation system, Deccan Riots of 1857 against the money lenders, Champaran Satyagraha
(1917-18) against the indigo plantation, Bardoli
Satyagraha (1928), and a non-tax campaign.
The basic ideologies of these movements were anti-state and anti-urban, with a focus on price-related issues, such as price procurement, remunerative prices, prices for agricultural inputs, etc. New methods of agitation were used, such as road and railroad blocking. Lately,
these movements have added the concerns of the environment and women’s issues to their agenda.
7. Write short notes on (NCERT)
(i) Women’s Movement (ii) Tribal Movements
Ans. (i) Women’s Movement – The early 20th century saw the growth of women’s organisations at a national and local level. For example, the Women’s India Association (WIA) (1917), All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) (1926) and National Council for Women in India (NCWl) (1925). Women participated along with men in struggles and revolts originating in tribal and rural areas in the colonial period. For example, the Tebhaga movement in Bengal, the Telangana arms struggle and the Warli tribal’s revolt.
In the mid 1970s, there was growth of autonomous women’s movements. Apart from organisational changes, there were new issues that were focussed upon by women’s movements. For example, violence against women, issues of land rights, employment for women and rights against sexual harassment and dowry.
(ii) Tribal Movements – Most of the tribal movements have been largely located in the ’tribal belt’ in middle India, such as the San dials, Hos, Onions, Mundas in Chota Nagpur and the Santhal Parganas. The region constitutes the main part of what has come to be called Jharkhand.
The social movement for Jharkhand had a charismatic leader as Birsa Munda, an Adivasi who led a major uprising against the British after his death. Some of the issues taken up by Jharkhand Tribal leaders include: nationalisation of forest produce which they boycotted, collection of loans, rent and cooperative dues, which were resisted, etc.
One of the key issues that bind the tribal movements from different parts of the country is the alienation of tribals from forest lands.
Case Based Questions
1. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below
The fusion of foreign power and capital was the focus of social protest during India’s nationalist struggle. Mahatma Gandhi wore khadi, hand-spin, hand-woven cloth, to support Indian cotton-growers, spinners and weavers whose livelihoods had been destroyed by the government policy of favouring mill-made cloth. The legendary Dandi March to make salt was a protest against British taxation policies that placed a huge burden on consumers of basic commodities in order to benefit the empire. Gandhi took items of everyday mass consumption like cloth and salt and transformed them into symbols of resistance.
(i) What was the focus of social protest during India’s nationalist struggle?
Ans. During India’s nationalist struggle the focus of social protest was the fusion of foreign power and capital. The British rule had given too much importance to these two factors which India had suffered for a long time.
(ii) What message did Gandhi want to spread through the legendary Dandi March?
Ans. The legendary Dandi March was a protest against British taxation policies. The British had placed a huge burden on consumers of basic commodities in order to benefit the empire. Gandhiji wanted people to realise the value of freedom.
(iii) As per this passage, what modes of protest did Gandhi ji use? (Delhi 2017)
Ans. Candle and torchlight processions, use of black cloth, street theatres, songs, poetry; and Gandhian ways like ahimsa picketing, use of Charkha and Satyagraha are few modes of protest.
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below
The anti-caste movement which began in the 19th century under the inspiration of Jyotiba Phule and was carried out in the 1920s by the non-Brahmin movements in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and then developed under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar had characteristics of all types. At its best it was revolutionary in terms of society and redemptive in terms of individuals. In partial context, the ‘Post Ambedkar Dalit Movement’ has had revolutionary practice. It has provided alternative ways of living, at some points limited and at some points radical and all-encompassing, ranging from changes in behaviour such as giving up eating beef to religious conversion. It has focussed on changes in the entire society, from the radical revolutionary goal of abolishing caste oppression and economic exploitation to the limited goals of providing scope for members of Scheduled Caste to achieve social mobility. But on the whole this movement has been a reformist movement. It has mobilised along caste lines, but only made half hearted efforts to destroy caste; it has attempted and achieved some real though limited societal changes with gains especially for the educated sections among Dalits, but it has failed to transform society sufficiently to raise the general mass from what is still among the most excruciating poverty in the world.
(i) Why were caste-based movements started before independence?
Ans. Before independence, caste-based movements were started for the following reasons (i) to oppose the supremacy of Brahmins over the other castes, (ii) to uplift the social status of our own caste in a caste hierarchy.
(ii) Do you agree with the views expressed in the above passage that the Dalit movements are reformative movements?
Ans. Yes, Dalit movements are reformative movements. They have mobilised along caste lines, but only made half hearted efforts to destroy caste. It has attempted and achieved some real though limited societal changes. However, these gains are limited to the educated sections among Dalits only. It has certainly failed to transform society sufficiently to raise the general mass.
(iii) Why are Dalit movements called reformative, redemptive and revolutionary movement at the same time?
Ans. As per the author, Dalit represents the extreme form of the world’s poverty. The Dalit movements are called reformative, redemptive, and revolutionary due to the following reasons
• Dalit movements were redemptive as they aimed at redemption in people’s life. They are revolutionary because they resulted in fundamental changes in society.
• These movements brought social and religious changes. It challenged the notion of accepted truth in society and provided people with alternative life.
• It focused on bringing radical change by abolishing caste oppression, economic exploitation, and social mobility for scheduled castes from a broad societal perspective.
3. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below.
The old social movements functioned within the frame of political parties. The Indian National Congress led the Indian National Movement. The Communist Party of China led the Chinese Revolution. Today some believe that ‘old’ class-based political action led by trade unions and workers parties is on the decline. Others argued that in the affluent West with its welfare state, issues of class-based exploitation and inequality were no longer central concerns. So the ‘new’ social movements were not about changing the distribution of power in society but about quality-of-life issues such as having a clean environment. In the old social movements, the role of political parties was central. Political scientist Rajni Kothari attributes the surge of social movements in India in the 1970s to people’s growing dissatisfaction with parliamentary democracy.
(i) As per the above passage, describe two main features of Old Social movements?
Ans. As per the above passage, two main features of Old Social movement are
• These movements operated within the framed work of political parties. For example, the INC led the Indian National Movement.
• These movements were based on class-based conflicts.
(ii) What is meant by Resource Mobilisation?
Ans. Resource mobilisation is a method in which any social movement gets strength by its political influence, wealth, reach of media, and cooperation of the people. The Resource Mobilisation Theory was propounded by MC Carthy and Zald.
(iii) What is the New social movement about as per the above passage? How is it different from the Old social movement?
Ans. The New social movement is about quality of life issues such as having a clean environment. It is different from Old social movements as it’s not about changing the distribution of power in society.