Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Important Question Therapeutic Approaches Term 2 2022

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Important Question Therapeutic Approaches Term 2 2022

Psychology Chapter 5 Important Question Therapeutic Approaches Term 2 2022

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Important Question Therapeutic Approaches Term 2 2022, (Psychology) exams are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of the state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students to prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions inside the very last asked from those.

Sometimes, students get stuck inside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students, solve all of the questions, and maintain their studies without a doubt, we have provided a step-by-step NCERT Important Questions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated Notes as a way to similarly assist the students and answer the questions right.

Class 12 Psychology Chapter 5 Important Question Therapeutic Approaches Term 2 2022

 

(A) Objective Questions (1 Mark Each)

 

Stand Alone MCQs

Q. 1._________ is a technique used to treat depression.

(A) Sublimation

(B) Systematic desensitization

(C) Gentle questioning for cognitive restructuring

(D) Aversion therapy

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: As Cognitive Therapy suggests, repeated occurrence of negative thoughts leads to the development of feelings of anxiety and depression. The therapist uses gentle questioning and does non-threatening disputation of the client’s beliefs and thoughts. Examples of such question would be, “Why should everyone love you?”, “What does it mean to you to succeed?”, etc. The questions make the client think in a direction opposite to that of the negative automatic thoughts whereby she/he gains insight into the nature of her/his dysfunctional schemas and is able to alter her/his cognitive structures.

Q. 2. _________ states that the presence of two mutually-opposing forces at the same time, inhibits the weaker force.

(A) Classical conditioning

(B) Systematic desensitization

(C) Principle of differential reinforcement

(D) Principle of reciprocal inhibition

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: The principle of reciprocal inhibition operates here. This principle states that the presence of two mutually opposing forces at the same time, inhibits the weaker force. Thus, the relaxation response is first built up and mildly anxiety-provoking scene is imagined, and the anxiety is overcome by the relaxation. The client is able to tolerate progressively greater levels of anxiety because of her/his relaxed state.

Q. 3. “I should be loved by everyone at all times “, “I must be liked by all.” This thought/belief can be treated using which therapy?

(A) CBT                        (B) RET

(C) Behaviour therapy (D) Logotherapy

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: The central thesis of rational emotive therapy is that irrational beliefs mediate between the antecedent events and their consequences. Cognitive therapies locate the cause of psychological distress in irrational thoughts and beliefs. In the process of RET, the irrational beliefs are refuted by the therapist.

Q. 4. The past is relevant only to the extent of understanding the origins of the faulty behaviour and thought patterns. Which therapy propagates this view?

(A) Logotherapy

(B) Rational emotive behaviour therapy

(C) Behaviour therapy

(D) Psychodynamic therapy

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Behaviour therapies postulate that psychological distress arises because of faulty behaviour patterns or thought patterns. It is, therefore, focused on the behaviour and thoughts of the client in the present. The past is relevant only to the extent of understanding the origins of the faulty behaviour and thought patterns. The past is not activated or relived.

Q. 5. A young person who has acquired the malfunctioning behaviour of smoking and seeks help to get rid of smoking. Upon interviewing the client and the family members, it was revealed that the person started smoking when he was preparing for the annual examination. He had reported relief from anxiety upon smoking. What is the maintaining factor as per the behavioural analysis?

(A) Annual examination

(B) Relief from anxiety

(C) Habit

(D) Personality of the person

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Maintaining factors are those factors which lead to the persistence of the faulty behaviour. An example would be a young person who has acquired the malfunctioning behaviour of smoking and seeks help to get rid of smoking. The family members reveal that the person started smoking when he was preparing for the annual examination. He had reported relief from anxiety upon smoking. Thus, anxiety provoking situation becomes the causative or antecedent factor. The feeling of relief becomes the maintaining factor for him to continue smoking.

Q. 6. In, the aim is to establish a relationship between undesirable behaviour with painful consequences.

(A) Biofeedback

(B) Aversion therapy

(C) Creative visualization

(D) Negative reinforcement

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Conditioning refers to repeated association of undesired response with an aversive consequence. Example: One example of aversive conditioning can be eating Nicotex tablet to get rid of smoking. Here, the undesired behaviour of smoking is weakened when the person feels nauseous due to eating of Nicotex tablet

Q. 7. Complete the steps of formulation of a client’s problem:

Understanding the problem —» Identifying the target areas for therapy.

(A) Clinical Formulation

(B) Choice of techniques for treatment

(C) Diagnosis

(D) End of Therapeutic Alliance

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: The choice of techniques for treatment depends on the therapeutic system in which the therapist has been trained. However, even within this broad domain, the choice of techniques, timing of the techniques and expectations of outcome of the therapy depend upon the clinical formulation.

Q. 8. Learning by observing others is used through a process of rewarding small changes in the behaviour, the client gradually learns to acquire the behaviour of the model. This is called:

(A) Token economy

(B) Positive reinforcement

(C) Modelling

(D) Vicarious Learning

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: Vicarious learning, i.e., learning ; by observing others, is used and through process of rewarding small changes in the behaviour, the client gradually learns to acquire the behaviour of the model.

Q. 9. Total acceptance of the client and creating an environment wherein the client can freely express themselves is the modality used in.

(A) Client-centered therapy

(B) Logotherapy

(C) Gestalt therapy

(D) Rational Emotive therapy

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: The therapy provides a warm relationship in which the client can reconnect with her/his disintegrated feelings. The therapist shows empathy, i.e. understanding the client’s experience as if it were her/his own, is warm and has unconditional positive regard, i.e., total acceptance of the client as she/he is.

Q. 10. Logotherapy is given by:

(A) Sigmund Freud

(B) Carl Rogers

(C) Ivan Pavlov

(D) Victor Frankl

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 11. Which of the following does NOT contribute towards Ethical Standards in psychotherapy?

(A) Confidentiality’ of the diet should be maintained

(B) Integrity of the practitioner

(C) Personality of the practitioner

(D) Professional competence by the therapist

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: The ethical standards in psychotherapy include informed consent, confidentiality, integrity of the client-therapist relationship, sole aim of alleviation of client’s distress, professional competence of the therapist and respect for human rights and dignity.

Q. 12. _________ taught in the USA has been found to be effective in treatment of mental disorders. The Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, USA has found that it is effective in the treatment of OCD.

(A) SKY           (B) Kundalini Yoga

(C) Vipassana (D) Meditation

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Kundalini Yoga taught in the USA has been found to be effective in treatment of mental disorders. The Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, USA has found that Kundalini Yoga is effective in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Q. 13. _____ is defined as an innate or inborn force that moves the person to become more complex, balanced and integrated, i.e. achieving the complexity and balance without being fragmented.

(A) Unconditional positive regard

(B) Self-awareness

(C) Personal growth

(D) Self- actualisation

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: Self-actualisation is defined as an innate or inborn force that moves the person to become more complex, balanced, and integrated, i.e., achieving the complexity and balance without being fragmented. This concept is a part of Humanistic School of Psychology given by Carl Rogers.

Q. 14. Systematic desensitisation was given by:

(A) Freud

(B) R. Berry

(C) Beck

(D) Wolpe

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 15. Praising the child when he eats properly is an example of:

(A) Positive reinforcement

(B) Negative reinforcement

(C) Token economy

(D) Appreciation.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: The process of encouraging or establishing a pattern of behaviour by offering reward when the behaviour is exhibited is called positive reinforcement.

Q. 16. Nishant feels very strongly that everyone should love him and he should be selected to represent the school for all competitions. When this does not happen, he feels miserable and is unable to concentrate. Which form of therapy would be the most suitable for him to overcome this problem?             [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2019]

(A) Cognitive therapy

(B) Psychodynamic therapy

(C) Behaviour therapy

(D) Biomedical therapy

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 17. The goal of________ is to increase an individual’s self-awareness and self-acceptance.

(A) Gestalt therapy

(B) Client-centred therapy

(C) Logotherapy

(D) None of the above

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 18. The rapid breathing techniques to induce hyperventilation is part of ___________ yoga.

(A) Sudarshana Kriya

(B) Pranayama

(C) Kundalini

(D) Ashtanga

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

 

Assertion and Reason Based MCQs

Directions: In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R).

Mark the correct choice as:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.

(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Q. 1. Assertion (A): The therapeutic relationship is a contractual relationship in which two willing individuals, the client and the therapist, enter into a partnership which aims at helping the client overcome her/his problems.

Reason (R): This alliance lasts until the client becomes able to deal with her/his problems and take control of her/his life

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 2. Assertion (A): A client, who was neglected by the parents as a child, develops the core schema of “I am not wanted”.

Reason (R): The childhood experiences provided by the family and society develop core schemas or systems, which include beliefs and action patterns in the individual.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 3. Assertion (A): Unconditional positive regard indicates that the positive warmth of the therapist is not dependent on what the client reveals or does in the therapy sessions.

Reason (R): This unique unconditional warmth ensures that the client feels secure and can trust the therapist.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 4. Assertion (A): The aim of rehabilitation is to empower the patient to become a productive member of society to the extent possible.

Reason (R): In rehabilitation, the patients are given occupational therapy, social skills training and vocational therapy. Many patients suffer from negative symptoms such as disinterest and lack of motivation to do work or to interact with people.

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Both the statements are correct about Client-centred therapy propounded by Carl Rogers, but are not as cause and effect.

Q. 5. Assertion (A): The therapeutic alliance, which is formed between the therapist and the patient/ client, has healing properties.

Reason (R): The regular availability of the therapist, and the warmth and empathy provided by the therapist helps the client to heal.

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Q. 6. Assertion (A): In empathy, one has compassion and pity towards the suffering of another but is not able to feel the perspective of the other person.

Reason (R): Empathy enriches the therapeutic relationship and transforms it into a healing relationship.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: A is false, R is true because in empathy, one does not have any compassion or pity, rather one tries to be non-judgmental and tries to see the situation from the other’s eyes or perspective. Pity or compassion is part of sympathy.

 

Case Based MCQs

I. Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

A child called Riya gives trouble eating dinner. She would always cry and show tantrums while having dinner. Her mother would get extremely upset from her behaviour and would shout at Riya. This creates trouble in the house and has become an everyday affair. Riya’s school counsellor suggested to her mother that she should decrease the quantity of snacks served at tea time. This would increase hunger at dinner and thereby, increase the value of food at dinner. She also suggested that Riya should be praised whenever she eats dinner properly. Praising the child will increase the likelihood of eating the dinner properly. The mother followed this and this issue got resolved.

Q. 1. Which therapy has been used in the above case?

Ans. Behaviour Therapy

Q. 2. What is the antecedent operation in the above case?

Ans. The antecedent operation is the reduction of amount of snacks at the tea time. Antecedent operations control behaviour by changing something that precedes such a behaviour. The change can be done by increasing or decreasing the reinforcing value of a particular consequence.

Q. 3. What is the consequent operation?

Ans. Consequent operation is praising the child for eating dinner. It establishes the response of eating dinner.

Q. 4. The aim of the therapeutic technique was to:

(A) Curb the faulty thinking

(B) Change Riya’s personality

(C) Substitute faulty behaviour with a more adaptive one

(D) None of the above

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: The aim of the therapeutic technique was to substitute faulty behaviour with a more adaptive one.

Q. 5. Changing a behaviour by increasing or decreasing the reinforcing value of a particular consequence is called:

(A) Maintaining Factor

(B) Predisposition

(C) Establishing Opera don

(D) Antecedent Operation

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: The change can be done by increasing or decreasing the reinforcing value of a particular consequence. This is called establishing operation.

II. Read the following text and answer the questions given below:

Jiya works as a Human Resource Manager for a large international organisation. She is becoming more and more stressed at work as the company is constantly changing and evolving. It is a requirement of her job that she keeps up with this change by implementing new strategies as well as ensuring focus is kept on her main role of headhunting new employees. She finds that she is working twelve-hour days, six days a week and doesn’t have time for her friends and family. She has started yelling at staff members when they ask her questions and when making small mistakes in their work. Concerned about her stress levels, Jiya decided to attend a counselling session. Below is anextract from Jiya’s first session with her counsellor:

Counsellor: Hello Jiya, how are you doing?

Jiya: I am fine, thank you.

Counsellor: Can you think of some episode this week when you were frustrated with work?

Jiya: Yes, definitely. It was on Friday and I had just implemented a new policy for staff members. I had imagined that I would get a lot of phone calls about it because I always do but 1 ended up snapping at people over the phone.

Counsellor : And how were you feelings at that time?

Jiya: I felt quite stressed and also annoyed at other staff members because they didn’t understand the policy.

Counsellor: And what was going through your mind?

Jiya: I guess I was thinking that no one appreciates what I do, they could have appreciated my policy.

Counsellor: Okay. You just identified what we call an automatic thought. Everyone has them. They are thoughts that immediately pop up in mind without any effort by us. Most of the thoughts occur so quickly that you don’t notice them but they have an impact on our emotions. It’s usually the emotion that we notice, rather than the thought.

Q. 1. Identify the therapy being used.

(A) Cognitive therapy

(B) Rational Emotive therapy

(C) Gestalt therapy

(D) Client Centered Therapy

Ans. Option (A) is correct.

Explanation: The therapist is working towards identifying the distorted thoughts.

Q. 2. Who has given this therapy?

(A) Rogers     (B) Victor Frankl

(C) Karl Marx (D) Aaron Beck

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 3. “No-one appreciates what I do” is an example of:

(A) Cognitive Distortion

(B) Automatic Negative Thought

(C) Faulty Behaviour

(D) Emotions

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Negative thoughts are persistent irrational thoughts such as “nobody loves me”, “I am ugly”, “I am stupid”, “I will not succeed”, etc.

Q. 4.________ include beliefs and action patterns in the individual.

(A) Cognitive distortion (B) Core Schemas

(C) Values                       (D) Thoughts

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Q. 5. Which technique is the counsellor most likely to use for treatment?

(A) Unconditional positive regard

(B) Conditioning

(C) Positive reinforcement

(D) Gentle questioning.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: The counsellor will do gentle probing to get an insight into the thoughts going on in the mind of Jiya and then the cognitive structuring will be done.

III. Read the following text and answer the questions given below:

Roshan is terribly afraid of snakes. His phobia has made him so dysfunctional that he had to take a long leave from his job at the local zoo. This happened when he heard that a snake enclosure opened and someone was bitten by it. Now, Roshan feels dizzy and breathless even at the thought of the snake and starts panicking. He has stopped going to zoo and is trying to take up a job elsewhere. He is even looking for a shift of house as his house is on the ground floor and he thinks a snake might show up at his house.

Q. 1. Which technique would work for treatment of Roshan?

(A) Gestalt therapy

(B) Systematic Desensitization

(C) Psychodynamic therapy

(D) Aversive technique

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Explanation: Systematic desensitisation is a technique introduced by Wolpe for treating phobias or irrational fears. The client is interviewed to elicit fear provoking situations and together with the client, the therapist prepares a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli with the least anxiety-provoking stimuli at the bottom of the hierarchy.

Q. 2. Which of the following is NOT true for systematic desensitisation?

(A) The client is interviewed to elicit fear­ provoking situations and together with the client, the therapist prepares a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli with the least anxiety-provoking stimuli at the bottom of the hierarchy.

(B) The principle of reciprocal inhibition operates in this therapy.

(C) The client is asked to continue thinking of the fearful situation if the slightest tension is felt as it will help him grow out of it

(D) The therapist relaxes the client and asks the client to think about the least anxiety-provoking situation.

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Q. 3. Who has given the technique of systematic desensitisation?

(A) Freud  (B) Wolpe

(C) Roger (D) Sperry

Ans. Option (B) is correct.

Q. 4. Assertion: Principle of Reciprocal Inhibition states that the presence of two mutually attracting forces at the same time, inhibits the weaker force.

Reason: Relaxation response is first built up and a mildly anxiety-provoking scene is imagined and the anxiety is overcome by the relaxation. The client is able to tolerate progressively greater levels of anxiety because of her/his relaxed state.

(A) Both A and R are true, and R is the correct explanation of A.

(B) Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(C) A is true, R is false.

(D) A is false, R is true.

Ans. Option (D) is correct.

Explanation: The assertion is false because the presence of two mutually opposing forces at the same time, inhibits the weaker force and not the attracting forces. The reason is true.

Q. 5. Systematic desensitisation is a part of:

(A) Cognitive therapy

(B) Gestalt therapy

(C) Behaviour therapy

(D) Alternative therapy

Ans. Option (C) is correct.

Explanation: Systematic desensitisation technique is a part of behaviour therapy. This is used for the treatment of phobia. This technique postulates that the phobias can be treated gradually by creating a hierarchy of least anxiety-provoking situations to the highest anxiety-provoking situations in combination of relaxation procedures.

 

(B) Subjective Questions

 

Very Short Answer Type Questions (2 Marks Each)

Q. 1. A client experiences irrational thoughts that are self-defeating in nature. Suggest a suitable therapy that will help her/him to reduce her/his distress. Also provide the rationale for selecting this therapy.           [CBSE SQP, 2020-21]

Ans. Cognitive therapy

Rationale- faulty or irrational thoughts

Q. 2. Analyse the chief benefit to the client in both behavioural and humanistic therapies.      [CBSE SQP, 2020-21]

Ans. Behaviour therapies: Changing faulty behaviours and cognitions to adaptive ones.

Humanistic therapies: Achieving personal growth, i.e. increasing understanding of oneself and one’s aspirations, emotions and motives.

Q. 3. What is systematic desensitization?       [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2017]

Ans. Systematic Desensitisation – by Wolpe

A treatment for phobias / irrational fears.

The client is interviewed to elicit fear – provoking situations.

The therapist prepares a hierarchy of anxiety provoking stimuli.

The therapist relaxes the client.

Over sessions, the client is able to imagine more severe fear provoking situations while maintaining the relaxation. So, the client gets systematically desensitised to the fear.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-I (3 Marks Each)

Q. 1. How is empathy different from sympathy?

Ans. In sympathy, one has compassion and pity towards the suffering of another but is not able to feel like the other person. On the other hand, empathy is present when one is able to understand the plight of another person and feels like the other person. It means understanding things from the other person’s perspective, i.e., putting oneself in the other person’s shoes. Empathy enriches the therapeutic relationship and transforms it into a healing relationship.

Q. 2. Describe the rehabilitation of the mentally ill.         [CBSE Delhi 2015]

Ans. The aim during the treatment of psychological disorders is to reduce the symptoms and improve the functioning or quality of life. Rehabilitation is required to help patients to become self- sufficient. In rehabilitation, the patients are given occupational therapy, social skills training and vocational therapy. In occupational therapy, the patients are taught skills such as candle making, paper bag making and weaving to help them to form a work discipline. Social skills training helps the patients to develop interpersonal skills through role-play, imitation and instruction. The objective is to teach the patient to function in a social group. Cognitive retraining is given to improve the basic cognitive functions of attention, memory and executive functions. After the patient improves sufficiently, vocational training is given wherein the patient is helped to gain skills to undertake productive employment.

 

Short Answer Type Questions-II (4 Marks Each)

Q. 1. How does rational emotive therapy help in reducing distress? Support your answer with the help of an example.          [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2019]

Ans. Albert Ellis Rational Emotive therapy.

ABC analysis, to be explained (Antecedent, Belief and Consequence) and example explaining the three points.

Non directive questioning – Gentle without probing, leads to reduction in psychological distress

Q. 2. Explain psychological distress according to humanistic-existential therapy.         [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2017]

Ans. (i) Psychological distress arises from the feelings of loneliness, alienation and an inability to find meaning and genuine fulfilment in life.

(ii) Human beings are motivated by the desire for personal growth and self actualisation. When these needs are curbed by society and family, human beings experience psychological distress.

(iii) Healing occurs when the client is able to perceive the obstacles to self actualisation in his /her life and is able to remove them.

(iv) The therapy creates a permissive, non judgmental and accepting atmosphere.

(v) The therapist is a facilitator and guide.

(vi) Aim of the therapy is to expand the client’s awareness. (Any one point)

Q. 3. Describe four factors which contribute to treatment of psychological distress.        [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2017]

Ans. Treatment of psychological distress

(i) Techniques adopted by the therapist and the implementation of the same.

(ii) The therapeutic alliance.

(iii) Unburdening of the emotional problems, (catharsis)

(iv) Non-specific factors attributable to the client / patient, (patient-variables) and attributable to the therapist (therapist – variables)

OR

Any relevant example i.e., relaxation procedure and cognitive restructuring

 

Long Answer Type Questions (6 Marks Each)

Q. 1. Discuss the various techniques used in behaviour therapy.

OR

Explain the key features of cognitive therapies as explained by Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck.          [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2020]

Ans. • A range of techniques is available for changing behaviour.

• The principles of these techniques are to reduce the arousal level of the client.

• Alter behaviour through classical conditioning or operant conditioning with different contingencies of reinforcements, as well as to use vicarious learning procedures.

Behavioural Techniques

• Negative reinforcement/ Aversive conditioning

• Positive reinforcement/ Token economy

• Systematic desensitisation/Principle of reciprocal inhibition

• Modelling

(Name and explanation any of the above six points)

OR

• Cognitive therapies locate the cause of psychological distress in irrational thoughts and beliefs.

• Albert Ellis formulated the Rational Emotive Therapy Antecedent, Belief, Consequence (ABC) analysis.

• Distorted perception of the antecedent events due to their rational belief leads to the consequence, i.e., negative emotions and behaviours. In the process of Rational Emotive Therapy, the irrational beliefs are refuted by the therapist through non-directive questioning; the nature of questioning is gentle, without probing or being directive.

• Aaron Beck – Psychological distress characterised by anxiety or depression, states that childhood experiences provided by the family and society develop core schemas.

• Negative thoughts are persistent, i.e., I am ugly, I am stupid, I will not succeed. These patterns of thoughts are called dysfunctional cognitive structures.

Cognitive distortions are the ways of thinking which are general in nature, which distort the reality in a negative manner.

(Explanation of the above with examples should be awarded marks)

Q. 2. Explain the importance of therapeutic relationships in psychotherapy. State the ethical standards in psychotherapy.         [CBSE Delhi Set-4, 2018]

Ans. Different types of psychotherapy are-Psycho dynamic uses, methods of free association and dream interpretation to illicit intra psychic conflicts.

Behavioural identifies faulty conditioning patterns and sets up alternate behavioural contingencies to improve behaviour. This therapy uses different techniques to treat different disorders.

Cognitive

Negative thinking, irrational beliefs and faulty generalisation are the cause of all disorders. e.g., Beck’s cognitive therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy.

Humanistic- Existential

Inability to find meaning in life and personal growth

Bio-medical

Disorders are treated using drugs. In case they fail, ECT is given.

Alternative Therapies

When conventional therapies are not helping then alternate methods such as Yoga and meditation are used.

Principles of Humanistic – Existential theory Inability to find meaning and fulfilment in life. Inability to find meaning in life and personal growth.

Curbing of growth needs by society and family leads to psychological distress.

Therapist as facilitator and guide provides therapy in permissive, non-judgmental and accepting environment.

Aim of therapy is to expand the client’s awareness.

Q. 3. What are the different types of psycho-therapy? Explain the principles on which humanistic- existential therapy is based.       (CBSE, 2013)

OR

Elaborate Behaviour Therapy and Humanistic Therapy.

Ans. The different types of psycho-therapies are:

(i) Psychodynamic therapy

(ii) Behaviour therapy

(iii) Existential therapy

Detailed explanation of each of the therapy and the principles on which existential therapy should be written.

Behaviour therapy: According to behaviour therapies, psychological problems arise due to faulty learning of behaviours and cognitions. The faulty conditioning patterns, faulty learning and faulty thinking and beliefs lead to maladaptive behaviours that lead to psychological problems. Behaviour therapy identifies the faulty conditioning patterns and sets up alternate behavioural contingencies to improve behaviour and overcome psychological distress. Behaviour therapists are capable of arriving at solutions to the client’s problems. Adaptive and healthy behaviour and thought patterns replace faulty behaviour and ensure removal of symptoms.

Existential therapy: These therapies postulate that the questions about the meaning of one’s life and existence are the cause of psychological problems. It gives importance to the present wherein the current feelings of loneliness, alienation, sense of futility of one’s existence causes psychological problems. The existential therapy provides a therapeutic environment which is positive, accepting, warm, empathic and non-judgmental. The therapist acts as a facilitator in which the client arrives at the solutions through the process of personal growth. Thus, the client understands oneself and one’s aspirations, emotions and motives.

OR

The principles underlying humanistic existential psychotherapy are:

(i) Psychological distress arises from feelings of loneliness to find meaning and genuine fulfillment in life.

(ii) Human beings are motivated by the desire for personal growth and self-actualisation, and an innate need to grow emotionally.

When these needs are curbed by society and family human beings experience psychological distress. Frustration of self- actualisation also causes distress.

The humanistic existential therapies encourage personal growth and actualise the potential. Self- actualisation requires free emotional expression. The family and the society curb emotional expression which leads to destructive behaviour and negative emotions by thwarting the process of emotional expression. The therapist is merely a facilitator and guide. It is the client who is responsible for the success of the therapy by the process of self-growth through which healing takes place.

The therapy creates a permissive, non-growth through which healing takes a judgmental and accepting atmosphere in which the client’s emotions can be freely expressed and the complexity, balance and integration could be achieved. The fundamental assumption is that the client has the freedom and responsibility to control his/her own behaviour and the chief aim of the therapy is to expand the client’s awareness.

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