Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments In Indian Politics
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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments In Indian Politics
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments In Indian Politics
Q 1. Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni… and arrange the file chronologically.
- Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.
- Formation of Janata Dal.
- The demolition of Babri Masjid.
- Assassination of Indira Gandhi.
- The formation of NDA government.
- Godhra incident and its fallout.
- Formation of UPA government.
- Assassination of Indira Gandhi (1984).
- Formation of Janata Dal (1988)
- Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir (1990)
- The demolition of Babri Masjid (1992)
- The formation of NDA government (1998)
- Godhra incident and its fallout (2002)
- Formation of UPA government (2004)
Q 2. Match the following:
(a) Politics of Consensus
(i) Shah Bano case
(b) Caste-based parties
(ii) Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justice
(iii) Coalition government
(d) Growing strength of Regional parties
(iv) Agreement on Economic policies
- Politics of Consensus -(iv) Agreement on Economic policies.
- Caste based parties -(ii) Rise of OBCs.
- Personal Law and Gender Justice -(i) Shah Bano case.
- Growing strength of Regional parties -(iii) Coalition government.
Q 3. State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?
Ans. The main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989 were the five developments that were to make a long-lasting impact on our politics. These were:
- End of “Congress system”.
- ‘Mandal issue’.
- New Economic policy Reforms.
- Babri Masjid.
- The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991 led to a defeat of Congress and emerged the era of Multi Party System when no single party secured majority in Lok Sabha elections since 1989. It led the era of coalition governments at the Centre, in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances. Since 1989, there have been nine governments at the centre either coalition government or minority government supported by other parties. In this phase, government could be formed only with the participation of many regional parties. The nineties also saw the emergence of powerful parties to represent Dalits and backward classes and regional assertions as well.
Q 4. “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?
Ans. The statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics the emphasis is on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement:
- Coalition politics has shifted the focus from ideological differences to power-sharing arrangements.
- Though most parties of the NDA didn’t agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of BJP. they came together with BJP to form a government and remained in power for the full term.
Q 5. Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.
Ans. The following are the ways in which BJP emerged as a significant force in post-Emergency politics:
- In the 1989 elections, the National Front under V.P Singh came to power supported by left front and BJP from outside because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power. Due to the Mandal Commission Reports and implementation of its recommendation forced BJP to reconsider its support and finally it withdrew it. Thus, in November 1990, the rule of the National Front came to an end.
- In 1996 election, BJP minority government was formed for a short period. In June 1996 BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus collapsed.
- From May 1998 to June 1999 and was re-elected in October 1999. Atal Behari Vajpayee was the Prime Minister during both these NDA governments and his government formed in 1999 completed its full term.
- The political competition during the nineties and divided between the coalition led by BJP and coalition led by Congress.
Q 6. In spite of the decline of Congress dominance, the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Ans. The defeat of the Congress Party in 1989 marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in the country:
- Congress improved performance and came back to power after mid-term elections in 1991.
- It also supported the United Front government.
- In 1996, the left continued to support the non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
- Thus, Congress remained an important party and ruled country more than any other party even during the period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
End of dominance did not mean the end of the Congress system. It was still the only party which had its organization across the country.
Q 7. Many people think that a two-party system is required for a successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of the last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.
Ans. In the first decade of electoral politics, India did not have a recognised opposition party. But some of the vibrant and diverse opposition parties had come into being even before the first General Election of 1952 as the non-Congress parties. Hence, the roots of almost all the non-Congress parties of today can be traced to one or the other of the opposition parties of the 1950s.
All these opposition parties gained only a representation, still, their presence played a crucial role in maintaining a democratic character of the system. Hence due to following reasons two party system is required for successful democracy:
- Within two-party systems, the opposition party offers a sustained and principled criticism of policies and practices of the ruling party keeping it under a strict check.
- By keeping democratic political alternative alive, these parties prevented the resentment with the system from turning anti-democratic.
On the basis of above-mentioned features it is justifiable to have a two-party system which has the following advantages:
- India has arrived at more competitive politics.
- Political parties act within the spheres of consensus.
- New forms, vision, pathways of development have been identified.
- Issues like poverty, displacement, minimum wages, livelihood and social security are being put on political agenda.
- Issues of justice and democracy are being voiced by various classes, castes and regions to remind states its responsibility.
Q 8. Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interest,…. An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests. —Zoya Hasan
- Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
- Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
- Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate a variety of interests?
- The author calls challenges to coalition government as well as a coalition in Congress party itself to trigger a new emphasis on self-representation. With the mushrooming of many regional yet powerful parties, Congress’s main challenge was to keep safe its support base.
- To unsolve a party system to accommodate diverse interests but the political parties formed under the leadership of Kanshi Ram for Dalits only.
- It is necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate a variety of interests to maintain the culture of India ‘Unity in Diversity’ so that there should be no space for separatist movements in India.