Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Locals Governments
NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Locals Governments, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions withinside the very last asked from those.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Governments
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Local Governments
Constitution of India visualised village panchayats as emits of self-government. Think over the situation described in the following statements and explain how do these situations strengthen or weaken the panchayats in becoming units of self-government.
(a) Government of a State has allowed a big company to establish a huge steel plant. Many villages would be adversely affected by the steel plant. Gram Sabha of one of the affected villages passed a resolution that before establishing any big industries in the region, village people must be consulted and their grievances should be redressed.
(b) The government has decided that 20 % of all its expenditure would be done through the panchayats.
(c) A village panchayat kept on demanding funds for a building for village school, the government officials turned down their proposal saying that funds are allocated for certain other schemes and cannot be spent otherwise.
(d) The government divided a village Dungarpur into two and made a part of village Jamuna and Sohana. Now village Dungarpur has ceased to exist in government’s books.
(e) A village panchayat observed that water sources of their region are depleting fast. They decided to mobilise village youth to do some voluntary work and revive the old village ponds and wells.
(a) This refers that Gram Panchayat was not consulted before the establishment of steel plant, by the state government. This action can weaken the institution of panchayats. The resolution passed by Gram Sabha strengthened the panchayats by giving them right to move to courts against the unilateral move of the state government.
(b) This decision of state government help the panchayats financially on the ground not to interfere in the decisions and priorities of the panchayats as well as panchayats need independent sources of revenue to operate effectively at the local level.
(c) This will weaken the Panchayati Raj because these institutions prioritize their developmental agenda themselves and denial for the same weaken them to become a self government.
(d) If this division has taken place on the recommendations of Panchayati Raj Institutions, it strengthen their powers but if it has been done on its own by the state, it would weaken these institutions.
(e) This will strengthen the Panchayati Raj Institutions’ respect and power.
Suppose you are entrusted to evolve a local government plan of a State, what powers would you endow to the village panchayats to function as units of self-government? Mention any five powers and the justification in two lines for each of them for giving those powers.
- Development works at village level, i.e. irrigation facilities, drinking water, construction of roads, etc.
- Agricultural development to be supervised and implemented by the panchayats only related to agricultural practices in a modem method.
- Social welfare related activities to keep the records of birth and death in the village, family welfare and family planning.
- The Gram Panchayat should be given the powers to open and maintain schools and Libraries in the village to maintain primary education.
- Gram Panchayats should enjoy the powers to ensure better health and life of citizens to provide basic civil amenities.
What are the provisions for the reservations for the socially disadvantaged groups as per the 73rd amendment? Explain how these provisions have changed the profile of the leadership at the village level.
In 1993, two constitutional amendment Acts, were passed to recognise local self-government at the grass-root level. 73rd amendment made the following provisions:
- The reservation of seats has been made for SCs, STs, OBCs and women.
- Reservation for women at panchayats has ensured the participation of women in local bodies.
- Due to this reservation, a number of women have occupied even the position of Sarpanch and Adhyaksha.
- Hence, more than 80,000 women Sarpanch have been elected so far.
What were the main differences between the local governments before 73rd amendment and after that amendment?
Before 73rd Amendment:
- Local government was a state subject only.
- States were free to make their own kind of laws in local government.
After 73rd Amendment:
- Local governments have received the recognition as a separate entity in the constitution.
- Elections at every regular interval of five years have been made mandatory.
- The seats have been reserved in favour of SC’s, ST’s, OBC’s and women.
- State Election Commission has been appointed and made responsible to conduct free and fair elections here.
- After every five years, state finance commission has been set up to review the finances of the panchayats and to make recommendations for grants to panchayats.
- The panchayats have been empowered to collect, levy the appropriate taxes, fees, tools as assigned by state government.
Read the following conversation. Write in two hundred words your opinion about the issues raised in this conversation.
Alok: Our Constitution guarantees equality between men and women. Reservations in local bodies for women ensure their equal share in power.
Neha: But it is not enough that women should be in positions of power. It is necessary that the budget of local bodies should have separate provision for women.
Jayesh: I don’t like this reservations business. A local body must take care of all people in the village and that would automatically take care of women and their interests.
This conversation is based on the issue of empowerment of women on equal basis:
- The constitution of India guarantees the equality of men and women.
- Under Article 15, no citizen can be discriminated on the grounds of colour, race, language and religion, caste, sex, etc.
- Article 39(1) and (d) ensure an adequate livelihood and equal pay for equal work for both men and women respectively.
- Alok views that our constitution guarantees equality between men and women as well as reservations in local bodies also ensure the equal share of power.
- Neha views to have separate provisions of budget to women to improve women’s conditions.
- Jayesh views to provide provisions equally to all people living in village, hence women would automatically be benefited.
- But, if women will be provided to equal access along with men without any reservation, it will not get success at all.
- Without reservation, women will not succeed to the power and to make policies because of male dominant society in India.
Read the provisions of the 73rd Amendment. Which of the following concerns does this amendment address?
(a) Fear of replacement makes representatives accountable to the people.
(b) The dominant castes and feudal landlords dominate the local bodies.
(c) Rural illiteracy is very high. Illiterate people cannot take decisions about the development of the village.
(d) To be effective the village panchayats need resources and powers to make plans for the village development.
(a) After 73rd Amendment Act, 1993:
- It is mandatory to hold elections after every five years.
- If the state government dissolves the panchayats before the completion of term, fresh elections must take place within six months.
(b) Reservation for SCs, STs, and women have been provided.
The women have reservation of 1/3 seats in local bodies.
SCs and STs have been given proportion accordingly to their population of that particular area.
Hence, dominance of feudal lords and dominant classes has come to an end.
(c) In the eleventh schedule of the constitution, 29 subjects have been given to localbodies in 1992.
Primary and secondary education is the part of this list to make the people literate in village.
The state government would shoulder the responsibility. .
(d) The panchayats have been given powers to levy, collect taxes, duties and fees according to state government’s provision.
The provisions for the establishment of a state finance commission have also been made to review the finances of panchayats and to make recommendations also.
The following are different justifications given in favour of local government. Give them ranking and explain why you attach greater significance to a particular rationale than the others. According to you, on which of these rationales the decision of the Gram panchayat of Vengaivasal village was based? How?
(a) Government can complete the projects with lesser cost with the involvement of the local community.
(b) The development plans made by the local people will have greater acceptability than those made by the government officers.
(c) People know their area, needs problems and priorities. By collective participation they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
(d) It is difficult for the common people to contact their representatives of the State or the national legislature.
These can be ranked as follows:
- (c) People know their area, needs problems and priorities. By collective participation they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
- (a) Government can complete the projects with lesser cost with the involvement of the local community.
- (b) The development plans made by the local people will have greater acceptability than those made by the government officers.
- (c) People know their area, needs problems and priorities. By collective participation they should discuss and take decisions about their life.
The decision of Gram Panchayat of Vengaivasal village was based on the rational (c)— people know their needs, areas, problems and priorities to take decision about life.
Which of the following according to you involve decentralization? Why are other options not sufficient for decentralization?
(a) To hold election of the Gram Panchayat.
(b) Decision by the villagers themselves about what policies and programmes are useful for the village.
(c) Power to call meeting of Gram Sabha.
(d) A Gram Panchayat receiving the report from the Block Development Officer about the progress of a project started by the State government.
(a) It may be the main point of involvement of decentralization.
(b) The representatives are elected by the villagers only from among themselves.
(c) It may also be subsidiary.
(d) It is the manifestation of the working of decentralization.
A student of Delhi University, Raghavendra Parpanna, wanted to study the role of decentralization in decision making about primary education. He asked some questions to the villagers. These questions are given below. If you were among those villagers, what answer would you give to each of these questions?
A meeting of the Gram Sabha is to be called to discuss what steps should be taken to ensure that every child of the village goes to the school.
(а) How would you decide the suitable day for the meeting? Think who would be able to attend/not attend the meeting because of your choice.
- A day specified by the BDO or the collector
- Day of the village haat
- Naag panchami/sankranti
(b) What is a suitable venue for the meeting? Why?
- Venue suggested by the circular of the district collector.
- Religious place in the village.
- Dalit Mohalla.
- Upper caste Tola
- Village school
(c) In the Gram Sabha meeting firstly a circular sent by the district collector was read. It suggested what steps should be taken to organise an education rally and what should be its route. The meeting did not discuss about the children who never come to school or about girls’ education, or the condition ol the school building and the timing of the school. No women teacher attended the meeting as it was held on Sunday. What do you think about these proceedings as an instance of people’s participation?
(d) Imagine your class as the Gram Sabha. Discuss the agenda of the meeting and suggest some steps to realize the goal.
(a) The day of village haat would be the most appropriate due to availability of a number of peoples to sell and purchase the commodities.
(b) The most suitable venue for the meeting would be the village school where every person feel free to move and come to join the meeting because rest of the venues are community based and people will not be comfortable to join the meeting.
(c) It was held on Sunday, hence the women teachers did not attend it.
A Gram Sabha meeting should be held to discuss the problems of village in place of organising an education rally.
This meeting had to discuss the problems like education, condition of school, girls education as well as regularity of children in school.
(d) The agenda would be for meeting:
- Regularity of students in school, if not, how to make it regular.
- To focus on poverty alleviation Programmes.
- To focus on Landlessness of farmers.
- The construction work in village required.
- Socio-cultural programmes.
- To arrange the funds for the programmes decided.
- Vote of thanks by Gram-Pradhan.
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