NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Secularism

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Secularism

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Secularism

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Secularism, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools.  As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation.  Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions withinside the very last asked from those. 

Sometimes, students get stuck withinside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions.  To assist students solve all of the questions and maintain their studies with out a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Solutions for the students for all classes.  These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated solutions as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Secularism

Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Secularism

 

Question 1.
Which of the following do you feel are compatible with the idea of secularism? Give reasons.
(a) Absence of domination of one religious group by another.
(b) Recognition of a state religion.
(c) Equal state support to all religions.
(d) Mandatory prayers in schools.
(e) Allowing separate educational institutions for any minority community.
(f) Appointment of temple management bodies by the government.
(g) Intervention of state to ensrure entry of Dalits in temples.
Answer:
(a) This idea is compatible because:

  • Due to equality, majority of religious people will not dominate minority religious people.
  • Minority religious people also enjoy freedom to practicise any belief, way of worship and to preach as well.

(b) It is not compatible because such situation prevails only in religious dominated state.

(c) Equal support to all religions by state cannot be provided because:

  • One state can have 10 festivals to be celebrated where as the other may have only 2 or 4.
  • The ways of worship are also different which is not possible for state to follow different methods.
  • Hence, it should be left on religious community or individual’s will.

(d) It is not compatible because students, teacher and employees are free to adopt their own way to offer prayer.

(e) It is compatible to provide protection and security to people of minority religions group.

(f) It is not compatible to be the direct involvement of state and or government in religious affairs.

(g) It is compatible because:

  • The weaker sections will not be denied the freedom to adopt any religion on ground of being lower caste.
  • Secularism does not challenge only inter-religious intra-religions domination also.
  • State’s efforts promote freedom within religions as well as equality among them.

Question 2.
Some of the key characteristics of western and Indian model of secularism have got mixed up Separate them and make a new table.

Western Secularism

Indian Secularism

1. Strict non-interference of religion and state in each other’s affairs

1. State supported religious reforms are allowed

2. Equality between different religious groups is a key concern.

2. Equality between different sects of a religion is emphasized.

3. Attention to minority rights

3. Less attention to community-based rights

4. Individual and his rights at the centre

4. Rights of both individual and religious community are protected.

Answer:

Western Secularism

Indian Secularism

1. State supported religious reforms are allowed

1. Strict non-interference of religion and state allowed.in each other’s affairs.

2. Equality between different sects of a religion is emphasized.

2. Equality between different religious groups is a key concern

3. Less attention to a community-based rights. Individual and his rights at the center

3. Attention to minority rights. Right of both individual and religious communities are protected.

Question 3.
What do you understand by secularism? Can it be equated with religious tolerance?
Answer:
Secularism is:

  • State has no religion of its own.
  • No, discrimination among the people on the basis of religion.
  • Every citizen is equal before law.
  • Every citizen enjoys freedom to reside with freedom and dignity in any part of country.

Equating of secularism with religious tolerance:

  • Religious tolerance is a powerful base of secularism, i.e. state has positive attitude due to sense of religious tolerance but they do not treat all seats equally.
  • Secularism provide fundamental rights to minority religious groups within the dominion of state.
  • The religious tolerance is not a right but a mutual sympathy.
  • Secularism opposes to intra-religious domination because, if religious tolerance is allowed only, then the people of majority seat will dominate the people of minority seat.
  • Indian secularism emphasises on peaceful co-existence refer to equal respect towards all religions and their practices and clarity in case of ambiguity.
  • Under Indian secularism, religiously sanctioned caste-hierachy are not acceptable.
  • Though secular state does not have to treat every aspect of every religion with equal respect, but it stops disregard towards the genuine aspects of other seats or religion.

Question 4.
Do you agree with the following statements? Give reasons for supporting or opposing any of them.
(a) Secularism does not allow us to have a religious identity.

(b) Secularism is against inequality within a religious group or between different religious groups.

(c) Secularism has a western-Christian origin. It is not suitable for India.
Answer:

(a) It is opposed because secularism believes and supports protection of religious identity, as being a part of human rights.

(b) It is supported because:

  • Secularism is not against inequality.
  • It allows religious institutions.
  • Secularism believes in equality of all religions.
  • The people belonging to different religions or communities enjoy equal opportunity of jobs.

(c) It is opposed because:

  • Secularism is neither have western origin nor it is not suitable for India.
  • After independence, India has been declared a secular state not to interfere in the religious matters of individuals.
  • Its example can be cited even from ancient history when Hindu and Buddhist rulers behaved equally with the people of different religions.

Question 5.
Indian secularism focuses on more than the religion-state separation. Explain.
Answer:

  • In India, secularism opposes all kinds of inter-religious domination and institutionalized religious domination.
  • Indian secularism promotes freedom within religions, i.e. no discrimination on the basis of religion, colour, race, etc. and equality among different religions.
  • India has promoted religious harmony to value peace, freedom and equality.
  • Indian secularism seperates clearly the religious institution and state institutions.
  • A secular state must be committed to the principle and goals of peace, religious freedom, freedom from religious oppressions, discrimination and exclusion of mier religious and intra-religious equality.
  • Indian constitution declares that every citizen enjoys a right to reside with freedom and diginity in any part of country.
  • India secularism follows all concepts related with principled distance.

Question 6.
Explain the concept of principled distance.
Answer:

  • To be secular, a state must not only refuse to be theocratic but also have no formal legal alliance with any religion because separation of religion-state is necessary but not a sufficient ingredient of a secular state.
  • A secular state must be committed to principles and goals to be derived from non-religions sources including peace, religious freedom, freedom from discrimination and inter-religious and intra-religious equality.
  • Secular states are neither theocratic nor establish a religion. Separation of religion and state is a mutual exclusion not to interfere in the affairs of religion and as well religion will not interfere in the affairs of state.
  • No policy of the state can have an exclusively religious rationale because state and religion both exercise separate spheres of their own.
  • The state cannot aid any religious institution or provide any financial support to religious communities as well as it cannot hinder the activities of religious communities which are within the broad limits set by law of land.
  • Religion is a private matter and it is not a matter of state policy or law, i.e. if a religious community excommunicates its dissenters, the state can only be a silent witness.

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