Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Social Justice
NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Social Justice, (Political Science) exam are Students are taught thru NCERT books in some of state board and CBSE Schools. As the chapter involves an end, there is an exercise provided to assist students prepare for evaluation. Students need to clear up those exercises very well because the questions withinside the very last asked from those.
Sometimes, students get stuck withinside the exercises and are not able to clear up all of the questions. To assist students solve all of the questions and maintain their studies with out a doubt, we have provided step by step NCERT Solutions for the students for all classes. These answers will similarly help students in scoring better marks with the assist of properly illustrated solutions as a way to similarly assist the students and answering the questions right.
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Social Justice
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 4 Social Justice
What does it mean to give each person his/her due? How has the meaning of “giving each his due” changed over time?
To give each person his/her due ensures the well-being of the people or equal importance should be given to all people, i.e. a doctor is concerned with the well being of his patients as well as the rules of government ensures the well being of citizens also. All these dues have been changed over times:
- The ideas of justice has been continued to be an integral part of the present day understanding and has changed from the time of Pluto.
- Today, the debates have also been taken place of what is due to each person as a human being.
- Human beings get the opportunities to develop one’s own potential as well as to pursue their chosen goals.
- Justice requires to give due and equal considerations to all individuals.
Briefly discuss the three principles of justice outlined in the chapter. Explain each with examples.
- Principle of treating equals equally refers to equal rights and equal treatment to individual who share certain characteristics as a human being, i.e. civil rights including right to life, liberty and property and political rights including right to vote, to enable rights to individuals to participate in political processes, etc.
- Principle not to treat any individual on the basis of discrimination on the grounds of caste, race, religion, colour, language, etc. the individuals should be judged on the basis of their capabilities they perform, i.e. made teachers get higher salary than female teachers, the persons performing the same tasks but getting different amount due to case is unjust.
- Equal treatment is not the only principle of justice because some circumstances may be appeared to be unjust if equal treatment is given, i.e. some marks to be awarded to all the students of a class if they have appeared in an examination in a uniform manner in place to award the marks on the basis of performance. This principle measuring people in proportion to the scale of equality of their efforts.
Does the principle of considering the special needs of people conflict with the principle of equal treatment for all?
- To promote social justice, principle of special needs of people are recognised. And peoples are required to be treated equally without any discrimination to reward proportionality.
- The principle of taking account of special needs of people does not contradict with the principle of equal treatment because the people who are not equal in certain important respect, may be treated differently to promote justice.
- People with special needs may deserve special assistance and particular respect but it is difficult to recognise the people who require special assistance.
- Some physical disabilities, age, lack of good education or health care facilities are considered of special treatment.
- In India, lack of good education, healthcare, amenities, etc. are generally combined with social discrimination on the basis of caste.
- Constitution of India, made the provisions for reservation in government jobs and quotas in educational institutions for the people who are deprived in the society.Hence, it can be concluded that it is necessary to recognize the people who need the special considerations and if it is mandate for justice, it cannot contradict with the principle of equal treatment for all.
How does Rawls use the idea of a veil of ignorance to argue that fair and just distribution can be defended on rational grounds?
- John Rawls argue that the only way we can arrive at a fair and just rule is to imagine ourselves to be in a situation in which are have to make decisions about how society should be organised despite we do not know the position to be occupied by ourselves in society. That is, we do not know what type of family we would be born either in upper caste or lower caste, rich or poor, privileged or disadvantaged.
- Rawls argue that if we don’t know who we will be and what options would be available to us in future society. We would support to those rules and organisations of future society to be fair for all members.
- Rawals under the concept of Veil of ignorance’ expects situation of complete ignorance, each person would decide in terms of their own interests only.
- But since no one knows who would be and what is going to benefit him, each will envisage the future society from the point of view of the worst off, it will be dear to a person who can reason and think for himself that those who are born privileged will enjoy certain privileges.
- If some people are born in a disadvantaged section, they will make sense to ensure reasonable opportunities to the weaker sections.
- The efforts would be made to make important resources available (education, health, shelter) to all persons.
- It is not easy to erase our identities and to imagine oneself about veil of ignorance. But then it is equally difficult to be self-sacrificing and to share good fortune with strangers.
- Hence, given these human failings and limitations it would be better to think of a framework that does not need extraordinary actions.
- “Veil of ignorance’ expect the people to think for themselves and select what they considered to be in their interest.
What are generally considered to be the basic minimum requirements of people for living a healthy and productive life? What is the responsibility of governments in trying to ensure this minimum to all?
- A just society should ensure basic minimum conditions to live healthy and secure lives and provide equal opportunities to pursue their chosen goals.
- A democratic government is responsible for a basic amount of nourishment to keep citizens healthy, education and minimum wages as well as housing, and supply of clean drinking water.
- But, to provide all these basic requirements put a heavy burden on government especially in the countries, where poor people are in a large number.
- If all of us agree that it is the responsibility of state, the conflicts may arise on choosing the methods to achieve these goals.
- The various debates have taken place on adopting the methods to ensure well-off of disadvantaged sections either by promoting open competition or should be taken the responsibility by the state or by a redistribution of resources.
- In India, different approaches are being suggested by different political groups who debate the relative merits to help marginalised sections of peoples.
Which of the following arguments could be used to justify state action to provide basic minimum conditions of life to ail citizens?
(a) Providing free services to the poor and needy can be justified as an act of charity.
(b) Providing all citizens with a basic minimum standard of living is one way of ensuring equality of opportunity.
(c) Some people are naturally lazy and we should be kind to them.
(d) Ensuring a basic facilities and a minimum standard of living to all is a recognition of our shared humanity and a human right.
(b) Providing all citizens with a basic minimum standard of living on one way of ensuring equality of opportunity.
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