NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification Of Elements

Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification Of Elements

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification Of Elements, in this step-by-step answer guide. In some of State Boards and CBSE schools, students are taught thru NCERT books. As the chapter comes to an end, students are requested few questions in an exercising to evaluate their expertise of the chapter. Students regularly want guidance managing those NCERT Solutions.

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Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Periodic Classification Of Elements

EXERCISE QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Which of the following statements is not a correct statement about the trends when going from left to right across the periods of Periodic Table :

( a ) The elements become less metallic in nature .

( b ) The number of valence electrons increases .

( c ) The atoms lose their electrons more easily .

( d ) The oxides become more acidic .

Ans . Correct option : ( c )

Explanation : The atoms lose their electrons more easily . Because on moving from left to right across the periods of the periodic table , the non – metallic character increases . Hence , the tendency to lose electrons decreases .

Q. 2. Element X forms a chloride with the formula XCI₂ , which is a solid with a high melting point . X would most likely be in the same group of the Periodic Table as :

( a ) Na

( b ) Mg

( c ) Al

( d ) Si

Ans . Correct option : ( b )

Explanation : Magnesium has the valency 2 and valency in a group remains the same . When it combines with chlorine having valency 1 it forms MgCl₂ . Na has valency 1 ( NaCl ) , Al has valency 3 ( AICl3 ) ; Si has valency 4 ( SiCl4 ) .

Q. 3. Which element has

( a ) two shells , both of which are completely filled with electrons ?

( b ) the electronic configuration 2 , 8 , 2 ?

( c ) a total of three shells , with four electrons in its valence shell ?

( d ) a total of two shells , with three electrons in its valence shell ?

( e ) twice as many electrons in its second shell as in its first shell ?

Ans . ( a ) Neon has two shells , both of which are completely filled with electrons ( 2 electrons in K shell and 8 electrons in L shell ) .

( b ) Magnesium has the electronic configuration 2 , 8 , 2 .

( c ) Silicon has a total of three shells , with four electrons in its valence shell ( 2 electrons in K shell , 8 electrons in L shell and 4 electrons in M shell ) .

( d ) Boron has a total of two shells , with three electrons in its valence shell ( 2 electrons in K shell and 3 electrons in L shell ) .

( e ) Carbon has twice as many electrons in its second shell as in its first shell ( 2 electrons in K shell and 4 electrons in L shell ) .

Q. 4. ( a ) What property do all elements in the same column of the Periodic Table as boron have in common ?

( b ) What property do all elements in the same column of the Periodic Table as fluorine have in common ?

Ans . ( a ) All the elements in the same column as boron have the same number of valence electrons ( 3 ) . Hence , they all have valency equal to 3 .

( b ) All the elements in the same column as fluorine have the same number of valence electrons ( 7 ) . Hence , they all have valency equal to 1 .

Q. 5. An atom has electronic configuration 2 , 8 , 7 .

( a ) What is the atomic number of this element ?

( b ) To which of the following elements would it be chemically similar ? ( Atomic numbers are given in parentheses . ) N ( 7 ) F ( 9 ) P ( 15 ) Ar ( 18 )

Ans . ( a ) The atomic number of this element is 17 .

( b ) It would be chemically similar to F ( 9 ) with configuration as 2 , 7 .

Q. 6. The position of three elements A , B and C in the Periodic Table are shown below :

( a ) State whether A is a metal or non – metal .

( b ) State whether C is more reactive or less reactive than A.

( c ) Will C be larger or smaller in size than B ?

( d ) Which type of ion , cation or anion , will be formed by element A ?

Ans . ( a ) A is a non – metal .

( b ) C is less reactive than A , as reactivity decreases down the group in halogens .

( c ) C will be smaller in size than B as moving across a period , the nuclear charge increases and therefore , electrons come closer to the nucleus .

( d ) A will form an anion as it accepts an electron to complete its octet .

Q. 7. Nitrogen ( atomic number 7 ) and phosphorus ( atomic number 15 ) belong to group 15 of the Periodic Table . Write the electronic configuration of these two elements . Which of these will be more electronegative ? Why ?

Ans .

Nitrogen is more electronegative than phosphorus . On moving down the group , the number of shells increases . Therefore , the valence electrons are from the nucleus and the effective nuclear charge decreases . This causes the decrease in the tendency to attract electron and hence electronegativity decreases .

Q. 8. How does the electronic configuration of an atom relate to its position in the Modern Periodic Table ?

Ans . In the modern periodic table , atoms with similar electronic configurations are placed in the same column . In a group , the number of valence electrons remains the same . Elements across a period show an increase in the number of valence electrons .

Q. 9. In the Modern Periodic Table , calcium ( atomic number 20 ) is surrounded by elements with atomic numbers 12 , 19 , 21 , and 38. Which of these have physical and chemical properties resembling calcium ?

Ans . The element with atomic number 12 has same chemical properties as that of calcium .

This is because both of them have same number of valence electrons ( 2 ) .

Q. 10. Compare and contrast the arrangement of elements in Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and the Modern Periodic Table .

Ans .

INTEXT QUESTIONS

Page 81

Q. 1. Did Dobereiner’s triads also exist in the columns of Newlands ‘ Octaves ? Compare and find out . [ NCERT Q. 1 , Page 81 ]

Ans . Only one triad of Dobereiner’s triads exists in the columns of Newlands ‘ octaves . The triad formed by the elements Li , Na , and K of Dobereiner’s triads also occurred in the columns of Newlands ‘ octaves .

Q. 2. What were the limitations of Dobereiner’s classification ? [ NCERT Q. 2 , Page 81 ]

Ans . Limitation of Dobereiner’s classification :

( i ) All known elements could not be classified into groups of triads on the basis of their properties .

( ii ) He could find only three triads from all the elements known .

Q. 3. What were the limitations of Newlands ‘ Law of Octaves ? [ NCERT Q. 3 , Page 81 ]

Ans . Limitations of Newlands ‘ law of octaves :

( i ) It was not applicable throughout the arrangements .

( ii ) It was applicable up to calcium only . The properties of the elements listed after calcium showed no resemblance to the properties of the elements above them .

( iii ) Those elements that were discovered after New lands ‘ octaves did not follow the law of octaves .

( iv ) The position of cobalt and nickel in the group of the elements ( F , Cl ) which have different proper ties could not be explained .

( v ) Placement of iron far away from cobalt and nickel , which have similar properties as iron , could also not be explained .

Page 85

Q.4 . Use Mendeleev’s Periodic Table to predict the formulae for the oxides of the following elements :

K , C , Al , Si , Ba . [ NCERT Q. 1 , Page 85 ]

Ans . K is in group 1. Therefore , the oxide will be K₂O .

C is in group 4. Therefore , the oxide will be CO2 .

Al is in group 3. Therefore , the oxide will be Al₂O3 .

Si is in group 4. Therefore , the oxide will be SiO2 .

Ba is in group 2. Therefore , the oxide will be BaO .

Q. 5. Besides gallium , which other elements have since been discovered that were left by Mendeleev in his Periodic Table ? ( Any two ) [ NCERT Q. 2 , Page 85 ]

Ans . Scandium and Germanium .

Q. 6. What were the criteria used by Mendeleev in creating his periodic table ? [ NCERT Q. 3 , Page 85 ]

Ans . Mendeleev’s periodic table was based on the observation that the properties of elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses . This means that if elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic masses , then their properties get repeated after regular intervals .

Q. 7. Why do you think the noble gases are placed in a separate group ? [ NCERT Q. 4 , Page 85 ]

Ans . Noble gases are inert elements . Their properties are different from all the other elements . Therefore , the noble gases are placed in a separate group .

Page 90

Q. 8. How could the Modern Periodic Table remove various anomalies of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table ? [ NCERT Q. 1 , Page 90 ]

Ans . ( i ) Mendeleev was unable to give fixed position to hydrogen and isotopes in the periodic table .

( ii ) In Mendeleev’s periodic table , the increasing manner of atomic mass of the elements is not always regular from one to its next .

( iii ) It was believed that a more fundamental property than atomic mass could explain periodic properties in a better manner .

( iv ) It was Henry Moseley who demonstrated that atomic number of an element could explain peri odic properties in a better way than atomic mass of an element and arranged the elements in increas ing order of their atomic numbers .

( v ) Then it was found that the various anomalies of Mendeleev’s periodic table were removed by the Modern Periodic Table .

Q. 9. Name two elements you would expect to show chemical reactions similar to magnesium . What is the basis for your choice ? [ NCERT Q. 2 , Page 90 ]

Ans . Calcium ( Ca ) and strontium ( Sr ) are expected to show chemical reactions similar to magnesium ( Mg ) . This is because the number of valence electrons ( 2 ) is same in all these three elements . And since chemical properties are due to valence electrons , they show same chemical reactions .

Q. 10. Name

( a ) three elements that have a single electron in their outermost shells .

( b ) two elements that have two electrons in their outermost shells .

( c ) three elements with filled outermost shells . [ NCERT Q. 3 , Page 90 ]

Ans . ( a ) Lithium ( Li ) , sodium ( Na ) , and potassium ( K ) have a single electron in their outermost shells .

( b ) Magnesium ( Mg ) and calcium ( Ca ) have two electrons in their outermost shells .

( c ) Neon ( Ne ) , argon ( Ar ) , and xenon ( Xe ) have filled outermost shells .

Q. 11. ( a ) Lithium , sodium , potassium are all metals that react with water to liberate hydrogen gas . Is there any similarity in the atoms of these elements ?

( b ) Helium is an unreactive gas and neon is a gas of extremely low reactivity . What , if anything , do their atoms have in common ? [ NCERT Q. 4 , Page 90 ]

Ans . ( a ) Yes . The atoms of all the three elements lithium , sodium , and potassium have one electron in their outermost shells .

( b ) Both helium ( He ) and neon ( Ne ) have filled outermost shells . Helium has a duplet in its K shell , while neon has an octet in its L shell .

Q. 12. In the Modern Periodic Table , which are the metals among the first ten elements ? [ NCERT Q. 5 , Page 90 ]

Ans . Among the first ten elements , lithium ( Li ) and beryllium ( Be ) are metals .

Q. 13. By considering their position in the Periodic Table , which one of the following elements would you expect to have maximum metallic characteristic ?

Ga , Ge , As , Se , Be ? [ NCERT Q. 6 , Page 90 ]

Ans . Since ‘ Be ‘ lies to the extreme left hand side of the periodic table , Be is the most metallic , among the given elements .

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