Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy
Class 10 Political Science (civics) Chapter 7 Outcomes of Democracy
Q. 1. How does democracy produce an accountable , responsive and legitimate government ?
Ans . Accountable :
• A democracy makes sure that people will have the right to choose their rulers and if these representatives do not work according to the people , people have the right to remove them .
• Whenever possible , citizens should participate in the decision – making process . This is known as transparency .
• Therefore , the most basic outcome of democracy is that it produces a government that is accountable to citizens and is responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens .
• There is one aspect in which the democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives .
• Regular elections are a key feature of the democratic government .
• That is , a democratic government is a legitimate government because it follows procedures and its decisions are more acceptable to the people and are more effective .
• It may be slow , less efficient but it is the people’s legitimate Democratic own government . government is people’s own government . That is why there is overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world .
• People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them .
• They also believe that democracy is suitable for their country and their problems would be attended to because the representatives elected by them would definitely fulfil the demands of the people who have elected them .
• Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored .
Q. 2. What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities ?
Ans . Democracies accommodate social diversities when it is well understood that democracy is not just the rule of the majority and that the rule of the majority is not just the rule of a single religious or social community . The majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view . The majority and minority opinions are not permanent .
In India , different caste groups , as well as weaker section are given proper representation . They are given reservation in government jobs and education . Democracy also ensures that the government is not formed by the majority and has the representation of minorities as well . Every citizen should get a chance of being in majority at some point of time .
In this way , democracy accommodates social diversity as it not only takes the interest of majority but it also takes care of the interests of weaker sections . Ability to handle social differences , divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes .
Q. 3 . Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions :
( i ) Industrialized countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich .
( ii ) Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens .
( iii ) The Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction , health , education and spend more on industries and infrastructure .
( iv ) In a democracy , all citizens have one vote , which means that there is the absence of any domination and conflict .
Ans . ( i ) Industrialised countries can afford democracy , but the poor need dictatorship to become rich . This statement is incorrect as it can be seen from the examples of India and Zimbabwe . In 1947 , India was included in the Third World nations , but it is , now , one of the fastest growing economies in the world . On the other hand , Zimbabwe , which was a fairly prosperous nation has , now , run into huge international debt with the progression of Robert Mugabe’s regime .
( ii ) This statement is correct . It is rightly said that democracy gives equal opportunity to all the sections of society . That is why it is necessary that there should be less inequality in democracy . But the present day is quite different from reality . It is so because , in a democracy , we cannot stop anyone from earning more money . Everyone gets an equal opportunity to earn for themselves . The difference lies in the opportunity that one is earning more and the other less . Hence , democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens .
( iii ) The government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction , health , education and spend more on industries and infrastructure . This is not a wise option as in poor countries , people cannot afford health and education services . Besides becoming an asset for the country , people will become burden on their country .
( iv ) In a democracy , all citizens have one vote , which means that there is an absence of any domination and conflict . This is not true as conflict can be eliminated only in an ideal situation . In real democracies , though every person has one vote , there are divisions among the people . In a democracy , inequality , social injustice , social disparity , economic injustice prevails in society . A major group of society will also try to dominate the minority of society . In this type of condition , conflicting situation will also prevail in the society .
Q. 4. Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions . Also suggest policy / institutional mechanism deepen democracy in the given situations :
( i ) Following a High Court directive a temple in Orissa that had separate entry doors for Dalits and Non – Dalits allowed entry for all from the same door .
( ii ) A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India .
( iii ) Following allegation of the killing of three civilians in Gandhara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police , an inquiry has been ordered .
Ans . ( i ) The challenge to democracy in the first statement is to provide equal status to all its citizens in spite of their caste . For this , the central government assures that all the state government should not allow any type of untouchability . Untouchability is no more a social practice but a serious offence . If anyone tries to do so then he should be given severe punishment under the law of Untouchability Offense Act of 1955 .
( ii ) The challenge to democracy in the second instance is providing farmers with subsidies which will help them to earn profits and have a satisfactory level of livelihood . Government has brought many Schemes to provide the farmers with minimum support price so that citizens are safeguarded against such incidences .
( iii ) The challenge to democracy is to preserve the people’s trust in government arms like the police . Due to the delay in decisions and actions government has lost its trust with the people , but to improve its position the government is being more cautious .
Q. 5. In the context of democracies , which of the following ideas is correct democracies have successfully eliminated :
( i ) Conflicts among people
( ii ) Economic inequalities among people
( iii ) Differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated
( iv ) The idea of political inequality
Ans . ( iv ) The idea of political inequality
Explanation : Democracies are based on political equality . All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives
Q. 6. In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is the odd one out . Democracies need to ensure :
( i ) Free and fair elections
( ii ) Dignity of the individual
( iii ) Majority rule
( iv ) Equal treatment before the law
Ans . ( iii ) Majority rule
Explanation : The country is not ruled by the majority , but the party who receives majority of the votes of the people form the government .
Q. 7 . Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that
( i ) Democracy and development go together .
( ii ) Inequalities exist in democracies .
( iii ) Inequalities do not exist under a dictatorship .
( iv ) Dictatorship is better than democracy .
Ans . ( ii ) Inequalities exist in democracies
Explanation : Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities . The poor constitute a large proportion of the voters and no party would like to lose their votes .
Q. 1. Can you think of what and how the government knows about you and your family ( for example ration cards and voter identity cards ) ?
The government knows about us and our family through the following ways :
Ans . ( i ) Every ten years , the government conducts the census . In this census , each adult member of the family along with his / her sex , age and education is recorded .
( ii ) There is a provision of registering birth , marriage and death of the family members with the government institutions .
Q. 2. What are the sources of information for you about the government ?
Ans . The sources of information for us about the government are as follows :
( i ) Right to information . Each and every citizen has while the right to know about policies and plan of the bilineo b government and also it’s working , structure , etc.
( ii ) Political leaders either local or national are the main sources of information to the common people . They make them aware of the policies and decisions taken by the government .
Q. 3. Cartoon on this page and the next three pages tell us about the disparities between the rich and poor . Should the gains of economic growth be evenly distributed ? How can the poor get a voice for a better share in a nation ? What can the poor countries do to receive a greater share in the world’s wealth ?
Ans . Of course , the gains of economic growth should be equally distributed among the citizens so as to make an economically even society . Also , this would be as per one of the basic causes of democracy i.e. , economic justice . It is possible only when this group is given proper representation and chances to participate in decision making . They should get united to fight for the cause . Only then , they will be able to get their share . At the same time , they will have to take initiatives to strengthen their internal democracy and exploit their own available natural resources .
Q. 4. What would be your verdict on democracy if you had to base it purely on the economic performance of democratic regimes in terms of growth and equal distribution ?
Ans . If we base our verdict on the economic performance of democratic regimes , we see that dictatorial regimes have performed much better in last 50 years . The democratic regimes witnessed 3.95 per cent growth rate on an average while the dictatorial regimes 4.42 per cent . The poor countries under democracy have obtained a better growth rate ( 4.28 per cent ) than all democratic regimes ( 3.95 per cent ) . Overall , there is not much difference between the two forms of government so far as economic growth rate is concerned .
The same is true with regard to the distribution of national income . For most countries top 20 per cent of their population fetch more than 50 per cent of national income while bottom 20 per cent people have less than 10 per cent share in national income . This shows the deep unequal distribution of national income . But , democracy has many other positive things that lack in dictatorship or other regimes , so I will go with democracy .
Q. 5. All you are saying is that democracy ensures that people do not break each other’s head . This is not harmony . Should we be happy about it ?
Ans . When a democracy tries to accommodate social diversity , it does not mean it ensures that people do not break each other’s head . A democracy acts on certain prudential reasons . No society can fully and permanently resolve conflict among different groups . In fact , democracy teaches us to respect these differences and evolve mechanisms to negotiate them . We should be happy that we can live together with dignity and freedom , with all our differences only when there is a democratic setup .
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