Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender Religion And Caste
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NCERT Notes For Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender Religion And Caste
Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender Religion And Caste
Sexual Division of Labour: A system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family while men are expected to work outside to earn money.
This belief is not based on biology but on social and expectations and stereotypes.
- The result of this division of labour is that though women constitute half of humanity, their role in public life, especially politics, is minimal in most societies.
- Earlier, only men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote and contest for public offices.
- Gradually the gender issue was raised in politics.
- It demanded to enhance the political and legal status of women and improve their educational and career opportunities.
- The movements which were raised by women to get equality in personal and family life are called Feminist movements.
The political expression of gender division and political mobilisation helped to improve women’s role in public life. As India is a male-dominated, PATRIARCHAL society, women face disadvantage, discrimination.
Women’s Oppression in various ways:
- Literacy Rate: The literacy rate among women is only 65.46% compared with 82.14% among men.
- Jobs: There is very low percentage of women in the high paid and high value jobs as just a few girls are encouraged to take up higher education.
- Wages: On an average, an Indian woman works one hour more than an average man every day and yet much of her work is not paid be it sports, cinema, agriculture or construction works.
- The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work.
- Sex Ratio: Most parents prefer boy children to girl children.
- Female infanticide and feticide are common in our country.
- This has resulted in unfavourable sex ratio.
- In India, sex-selective abortion led to a decline in child sex ratio (number of girl children per thousand boys).
- Social Evil: Society in general and urban centres in particular, is not safe for women. Dowry harassment, physical abuse, sexual harassment are routine tales.
Women’s political representation
- Issues related to women are not given adequate attention.
- This has led many feminists and women’s movements to the conclusion that unless women control power, their problems will not get adequate attention.
- In India, the percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha touched 12 percent of its total strength for the first time in 2014.
- Political representation of women in India is very low. It has never crossed 5% in any of the Vidhana Sabhas and never crossed 12% in Loka Sabha.
- One way to solve women’s problem is to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies.
- In Panchayats and Municipalities, one-third of seats in local government bodies are reserved for women.
- Now there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.
- Gender division is an example that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics.
- This also shows that disadvantaged groups do benefit when social divisions become a political issue.
Religion, Communalism and Politics
Religion Differences in Politics(religion)
- The division based on religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics.
- In India, there are followers of different religions.
- People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as a member of a religious community.
- Human rights activists allege that people from minority religious community suffer a lot whenever there is communal violence.
Extreme and partisan attachment to one’s own religion is called Communalism.
What is Communal Politics?
- The problem becomes When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions.
- The problem becomes serious when demands of one religious groups is formed in opposition to other religions.
- The problem becomes very acute when the Government uses its power to fulfil the demands of only one religious group.
- This kind of using religion is politics is called Communal Politics.
Communalism can take various forms in politics as mentioned below:
- The most common expression of communalism is in everyday beliefs involves religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions.
- A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community.
- Political mobilisation on religious lines involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena.
- Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communal riots at the time of the Partition.
The Theory of Communal Politics
- Religion is the main basis of formation of the society.
- The followers of a religion must form one community.
- Their fundamental interests are the same.
Why is theory of Communal Politics wrong?
- People of the same religion do not have same interest and aspirations in every context.
- Everyone has different identities in different contexts.
India is a secular state. Some of the features of india secular states are:
- India is a secular state. There is no official religion or state religion in India.
- The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any
- The constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
- The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example, it bans untouchability.
Caste and Politics
Caste and politics both have some positive and some negative aspects
- In most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another.
- Caste system is an extreme form of this.
- In this system, members of the same caste, the group were supposed to form a social community that practiced the same or similar occupation, married within the caste group and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
- With economic development, large scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords in the villages, the old notions of Caste Hierarchy are breaking down.
- The Constitution of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system.
Why does caste system still persist?
- Most people prefer to marry within their own caste or tribe.
- Untouchability has not ended a completely.
- The caste groups that had access to education have continue to do well.
Caste in political parties
Caste can take various forms in politics:
- When parties choose their candidate or when governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
- Political parties and candidates in elections make appeals to caste sentiment to win the elections.
- To gain support political parties raise caste-based issues during elections to get political support, as ‘one man one vote’ system or adult franchise has made the voter very powerful.
- Political Parties have made people belonging to lower castes conscious about their rights to vote and their powers.
Caste alone cannot determine Indian Elections
- No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste.
- No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste our community.
- When people say that a caste is a ‘vote bank’ of one party, it usuallu means tat a large proportion of the voters from that casrte vote for that party
- Many political parties may put up candidates from the same caste (if that caste is believed to dominate the electorate in a particular constituency).
- Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidate from their caste
- The ruling party and the sitting MP or MLA keep changing whenever fresh elections take place.
- The voter’s attachment to his party and the party ideology can be stronger than his attachment to his caste group.
Politics in caste
Politics also influence the caste system and caste identities by bringing them into the political arena. Here are a few points that support this;
- Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighbouring castes or sub-castes.
- Various caste groups are formed with other castes or communities and then they enter into a dialogue and negotiation.
- New kinds of caste groups have come up in the political arena like ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.
The Outcome of Political Expression of Caste
- It has provided space and opportunity for the disadvantaged groups to demand their share in power.
- It also has helped them to fight for social justice.
- Caste based politics is certainly not healthy in democracy.
- It can divert attention from other important issues like poverty, development and corruption.
- It can also lead to tensions, conflicts and violence.
- Thus, caste plays different kinds of roles in politics. In some cases, caste division leads to tensions, conflict and even violence.
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